The development of the concept of the objective side of the crime and its theoretical basis




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THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONCEPT OF THE OBJECTIVE SIDE OF THE CRIME AND ITS THEORETICAL BASIS
Dorokhina Y.A.

candidate of legal sciences, assistant professor,

National Academy of Management,

Problem statement. When analyzing a crime we distinguish its objective side. In the theory of criminal law it is defined as the external side of the overall dangerous act that happens under certain conditions, within a certain place and at a certain time and hurts public relations [1, p.6]. The outer side of the crime is contrasted with its inner side. Dialectical understanding of the internal and external by Hegel was formulated in his work ' The science of logic ', where he contrasted views that considered the essence as something exclusively internal the idea of their co-interference[2]. The division related to the internal and external we can find in the works of John Locke [3, p.128].

Enacted in the criminal law division of signs of the crime on the internal and the external is primarily a practical utilitarian concept and not a moment revealing the sense of the acts [1, p.6]. Although questions about the essence of the phenomenon in any science have never been removed. Separation of external and internal issues is related mainly to the necessity of making order in the process of qualification of the crime and working out the most logical in this case sequence of actions.

Introduction. It should be stated that our research is based on the works of Y.V. Alexandrov, P.P. Andrushko, V.I. Antypov, M.I. Bazhanov, H.H.Absatarov, Y.V. Baulin, F.D. Grebienkin, V.M. Kudriavtsev, P.M. Lievina, V.K. Matviichuk, P.S. Matyshevskyi, M.I. Melnyk, V.V. Stashys, V.Y. Tatsyii, H.V. Tymeiko, etc. However, attention paid by the researchers to this element of the crime does not eliminate the need to continue the exploration of the theoretical provisions of the concept of the objective side of the crime.

^ The object of the study. The objective side is crucial for the defining of a crime. This is due to the following circumstances:

- firstly, something has no external expression cannot be recognized as a crime, so the composition of any crime involves external signs of the act;

- secondly, external signs of a crime leave traces in the tangible world, thus it becomes possible to reveal the crime and the fact of its commitment;

- thirdly, external signs are the most reliable criteria in expressing of internal signs through the organic unity of the first and the second;

- fourthly, the external signs of the crime focus on what we associate harm with (loss, damage), without which the crime is impossible.

In our opinion, in establishing the fact of the crime its objective side should be determined in relation to the mind of the criminal and only to it. When assessing illegal acts we correlate specific behavior of the individual with specific signs of a crime.

The differences between the existing definitions of the objective side of the crime are not only in the degree of concretization of its content, but also in the amount of visible signs. As to this there is no single point of view in scientific literature. There are several groups of researchers of the indicated problem. The first group of scientists under the objective side of the offense realizes the characteristic criminal law, external signs of criminal acts (A.V. Naumov, V.V. Petrov). The second group claims that it is an act of socially dangerous infringement aimed at the object protected by the criminal law (M.I. Vietrov, Y.I.Liapunov). The third group characterizes the objective side of the crime as the one which consists of socially dangerous acts that have caused or could cause significant damage (I.P.Gryshaiev). The fourth group explains the objective side of the crime as a complex of features determined by the la that characterizes the external signs of socially dangerous acts (M.I. Bazhenov).The fifth group stresses that it is an external indication of socially dangerous infringement on one object or another. (F.G. Burchak, Y.F. Fesenko). The sixth group to the objective aspects of crime includes the set of signs provided by the criminal law that characterize the external indicators of socially dangerous acts (I.Y.Kozachenko, Z.A. Neznamov). And finally the seventh group explains the objective side of the crime as a process of social dangerous infringement on the interests that are protected by law ( V.M. Kudriavtsev, M.P. Zhuravliov, S.I.Nikulin).

It should be noted that in modern literature one of the most consistent definitions is suggested by L.D. Gaukhman. The scientist gives the following definition: “the objective side of a crime is a set of external objective significant typical for this type of crime traits described by the criminal law, which characterize the offense as the finished one and committed by an individual”. This opinion is shared by F.G. Burchak and M.I. Bazhenov. Yet V.K. Matviichuk believes that this opinion is a step back, because there is no indication of the conditions under which the act is committed [7, p.201-267].

The definition suggested by G. V. Timeiko in which he states that “ the objective side of a crime is an external sign of the criminal act that happens under specific conditions of a certain place, time and environment” [8, p.6] can be considered only for the formal elements of the crime.

Imperfect is the opinion of P.I. Gryshaiev who states that the objective side consists of a socially dangerous act which causes or is capable of causing significant damage to public relations, protected by criminal law. We can see that in his definition the scientist does not provide all aspects of the objective side of the crime.

P.L. Fris notes that the objective side of the crime is a set of characteristics that define the outer side of the crime and characterizing the social dangerous acts, its harmful effects and the causal connection between the acts and consequences, as well as place, time, situation, condition, the tools and the means of committing the crime [10, p. 80-81]. In this definition the scientist introduces a new feature “the state of committing a crime”. In our opinion, this sign matches with such features as the setting and time of committing the crime.

M. I. Panov suggests the following definition: the objective side of the crime is the outer side of the offense, which is characterized by a socially dangerous act, socially dangerous consequences, the link between the act and socially dangerous consequences, place, time, manner and means of committing the crime[11, p.117]. In our opinion, this definition is fairly informative and accurate. As we see the options for the definition of the notion ‘the objective side of crime’ is enough in the professional literature. However, by itself a significant quantity and diversity do not indicate that the issue is finally addressed. Researchers consider this issue somewhat in an isolated manner. Each of the elements and signs of crime in reality does not exist by itself. The fallout of any element of the system destroys or completely changes it. We share the opinion of M.I. Melnyk and M.I. Khavroniuk that the objective side is not characterized by all the external elements of criminal behavior, but only those that reflect the encroachment on a certain object, protected by law. Scientists say: the act of socially dangerous infringement on the object protected by the law by which the object is harmed or is intended to be harmed.[13, p.14]. Such views are shared by Y.V. Alexandrov and V.A. Klymenko. They point out that the combination provided by the law of signs that characterize the external signs of socially dangerous acts that encroaches on the objects of the criminal-legal protection, as well as the factors with which this act is associated[16, p13].

Conclusions. We see that the notion of the objective side of the crime not formulated to the full in science of criminal law. Based on the abovementioned details, the definition of the objective side of the crime, which fully displays its real content, will be the following: the objective side of the offense is a system stipulated by the criminal law of the external signs that characterize the external manifestation of socially dangerous acts that encroaches on the objects, which are protected by law, and also characterize the outer side of the encroachment on public relations and is the subject of the subjective assessment.
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Дорохіна Ю.А. Розвиток поняття об’єктивної сторони складу злочину та його теоретичні основи

Стаття присвячена розробці загальнотеоретичних основ учення про об’єктивну сторону злочину, розвитку його поняття. Звертається увага на зв’язок об’єктивної сторони злочину з іншими елементами складу злочину, пропонується  авторське визначення поняття об’єктивної сторони злочину.

Ключові слова: злочин, зовнішня сторона злочину, об’єктивна сторона складу злочину.
Дорохина Ю.А. Развитие понятия объективной стороны состава преступления и его теоретические основы

Статья посвящена разработке общетеоретических основ учения об объективной стороне преступления, развития его понятия. Обращается внимание на связь объективной стороны преступления с другими элементами состава преступления, предлагается  авторское определение понятия объективной стороны преступления.

Ключевые слова: преступление, внешняя сторона преступления, объективная сторона состава преступления.
Dorokhina Y. The development of the concept of the objective side of the crime and its theoretical basis

The article is devoted to the development of general theoretical foundations of the doctrine of the objective side of the crime, the development of his concept. Draws attention to the relationship of the objective side of the crime with other elements of the offense, the author proposed a definition of the lens-tion side of the crime.

Keywords: crime, the external aspect of the crime, the objective aspect of the crime.

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