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Litvin O. Yu., candidate of economic sciences
Poltava state agrarian academy
DESCRIPTIVE PROPAGANDIST PERIOD IS IN DEVELOPMENT
OF HOUSING CO-OPERATION
A reviewer is a doctor of economic sciences, professor A. O. Panteleymonenko
The basic problems of development of housing co-operation, their illumination are considered in world economic literature. The analysis of researches, devoted the adopted theme is carried out.
A division into the periods of publications of, is offered which outlines four periods and takes into account the specific of public policy in industry of housing co-operation. Attention is accented on that exactly housing co-operation can be one of possible mechanisms of decision of sharp housing problem in Ukraine, on the necessity of the wide informing of population about large potential of housing co-operation and use of positive oversea experience.
Keywords: co-operation, housing cooperative store, dwelling and lease cooperative store, apartment, habitation.
Statement of the Problem. The important index of level of socio-economic development of any state is material well-being of its citizens accessible and high-quality habitation. At the same time, international experience convincingly testifies that a housing question is one of most difficult for a decision, through a requirement in considerable financial resources. Therefore, even, in the leading countries of the world, decision of housing problem needed considerable period of time, and in most postsoviet states this process lasts and presently.
Ukraine belongs to the number of the last, where, to want of necessary budgetary facilities, there is a necessity of search of effective mechanisms of combination of efforts of the state with the use of potential of tested by world practice of various forms of economic self-help of citizens, for realization of them constitutional right on habitation and the terms of dwelling deserve. Long-term domestic and foreign experience of housing co-operation is especially important for our country today, in the conditions of search of effective mechanisms for providing of Ukrainians, maintenance of him and near houses territories new and high-quality habitation in the proper state.
^ Researches, devoted the adopted theme, a bit. And they represent only separate aspects of housing co-operation.
S. Borodaevskiy , A. Merkulov , and D. Polupanov  analyse housing co-operation in the Russian empire and countries of Central and East Europe, and M. Broydo , L. Shcheglova  – in the countries of Western Europe. K. Vebb  did the analytical review of history, theory and practice of co-operative motion in England, Scotland and Ireland. «Co-operation» analyses a term Е. Levin . However, there is not generalization and deep complex analysis of experience of housing co-operation by domestic research workers. Separate aspects, for example, activity of dwellings and lease cooperative stores, studied not enough. Exactly it and determines actuality of this article.
^ informing of population about large potential of housings cooperative stores and positive experience of their functioning, both on Ukrainian earths, and abroad, for the search of mechanisms of decision of modern housing problem in Ukraine.
The major task of research is an analysis of publications, devoted development of housing
^ For achievement of the put purpose principles of analysis of the systems of economic processes, characteristic for the period of becoming of housing co-operation and fundamental positions of institutional economic theory are utillized, foremost, theories of economic organizations (in particular, housings cooperative stores). For the construction of logic and structure of work the methods of division into periods and structurally logic analysis were used. Methods of historical retrospective analysis were basic during research of becoming of housing co-operation. The methods of complex and system approach were used for formulation of conclusions.
^ Taking for basis a division into the periods of the modern Ukrainian researcher of co-operative motion A.O. Panteleymonenko, which lights up the problems of development of agricultural co-operation [7, р. 15], it is possible to offer analogical, that represents the specific of domestic publications in relation to housing co-operation, to a great extent related to the changes in a public economic policy. A division into periods is adopted de bene esse engulfs four basic periods:
I – descriptive propagandistical (end of the ХІХ – beginning of the ХХ century);
ІІ – politisation of housing co-operation (20th – end of the 30th of the ХХ century);
ІІІ – instructionally aistical (60th – end of the 80th of the ХХ century);
ІV – scientifically analytical (from the beginning of 90th of the ХХ century).
Basis of the first period is made by labours of researchers of before радянської days, second and third – the results of researches of research workers of soviet period are published, and fourth are domestic publications of end ХХ – to beginning of ХХІ century.
A Descriptive analytical period is especially bright in historiography of housing co-operation.
It represents the difficult becomings and first achievements of co-operative dwellings and build societies, and characterized scientific labours, that, without an overstatement, it is possible to name the classics of co-operative idea. To their number works belong V. Borodaevskogo, М. Broydo, К.Vebb, М.Gibnera,
Е. Levina, O. Merkulova, D. Polupanova, L. Shcheglovoy and other [1-6, 8-11].
By an important source for the analysis of the state of housing co-operation of England in the end ХІХ and beginning of ХХ century is book by K. Vebb «Peaceful revolution is in economic life. Co-operation in the Great Britain», printed in 1910 . Author probed three variants of co-operative building, in detail described activity of the most known dwellings and build societies, brought interesting statistical information over. M. Broydo in the analytical article of «Build co-operation in the West» (in 1911) gave description of different models of dwellings and build co-operative organizations of England of beginning of ХХ century [2, р. 67].
Important information about housing co-operation of Germany of the adopted period it is possible to get from book of M. P. Gibner «System of co-operation», published in 1911 in Moscow . An author represented the process of building of dwelling-house from acquisition of place and drafting of architectural plan to passing to of the inhabited apartment the member of co-operative society. He analysed the possible sources of bringing in of capital to the dwellings and build cooperative store, compared development of housing co-operation in Germany and England, confirmed the conclusions the proper statistical information.
The Russian researcher of co-operative motion is known in industry of housing building of beginning of ХХ century D. Polupanov, in 1915, in the article of «Co-operative motion in the West (French build co-operation)» paid a regard to reasons enough high level of development of French housing co-operation, naming major from them – favourable public policy and housing legislation . An author considered that an assistance housing co-operation from the side of the state had been caused not only the necessity of decision of housing question but also necessity to decrease social tension in the environment of class of worker. A researcher on a concrete example showed all financial charges of member of co-operative society, leading to advantages of such mechanism of housing of citizens.
In other labour of «Flat owning co-operation» (in 1915) D. Polupanov make the analysis of reasons of origin of flat owning (housings co-operative) societies in the Russian empire at the beginning of ХХ century . The adopted reasons consisted in that houses, built housings societies, advantageously differed equipping with modern amenities and newest equipment (elevators, laundries, ventilation is centralized and others like that). An author asserted that in houses, built co-operative societies, apartments were built on to the necessities and wishes of future proprietors. Transferring advantages of housings cooperative stores, D. Polupanov objectively wrote about present problems – costliness of apartments and absence of cheap credits. A researcher, confirming the conclusions, pointed prices on co-operative apartments in Petersburg, chart of payments, sum of the first payment and annual payments, condition of the mortgage crediting, analysed the sources of credits in Europe. Subsequent development of housing co-operation, in opinion of author, must be determined the decisions of question of search of «cheap» credit and expansions of rights for the participants of a build society.
The estimation of development of housing co-operation status in the Russian empire is given by research of Society of Consumer societies of south of Russia, that was published in 1918 in Kharkov . The same theme was the article of research O. Merkulova and found the reflection in the publication of «Co-operative in Russia» .
The analysis of development of co-operative motion in the countries of Western Europe was done by V. Borodaevskiy in scientific work «Co-operation among slavs» (in 1912) and L. Shcheglova – in the article of «Co-operative motion in the West (co-operative life is of Western Europe)», to published in the first number of magazine «News of cooperation» after 1915 [1; 10].
Conclusions. Probing a descriptive analytical period in historiography of housing co-operation, it is possible to assert that exactly housing co-operation can be one of possible mechanisms of decision of sharp housing problem in Ukraine. This advanced study accents attention of representatives of public, research workers, public authorities on the necessity of the wide informing of population about large potential of housings cooperative stores and positive experience of their functioning.
Автор благодарит Victor A. Hill, руководителя английской фирмы International Management Development, London и L. P. Todd, руководителя...