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|УДК 332.122:379.84 |
STIMULATION OF INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF REGIONAL CLUSTERS, AS A CONDITION OF ECOLOGIZATION OF REGION
Tauride National University named after V.I. Vernadsky
4, Academician Vernadsky Ave, Simferopol, 95007,
Розглянуто шляхи стимулювання інвестиційної діяльності на основі кластерної системи. Передбачувана структурна перебудови господарського регіону розбита на етапи, на кожному з яких вирішуються свої завдання, спрямовані на стабілізацію і економіки кримського регіону, підвищення життєвого рівня місцевого населення, екологізація території. Ключові слова: екологізація інвестиції, інвестиційна діяльність, кластер.
^ И.Ю. Швец. Рассмотрены пути стимулирования инвестиционной деятельности на основе кластерной системы. Предполагаемая структурная перестройки хозяйственного региона разбита на этапы, на каждом из которых решаются свои задачи, направленные на стабилизацию и укрепление экономики крымского региона, повышение жизненного уровня местного населения, экологизация територии. Ключевые слова: экологизация, инвестиции, инвестиционная деятельность, кластер.
Stimulation of investment activity of regional clusters as a condition of ecologization of region. I Shvets. Ways stimulate investment based cluster system. Estimated structural adjustment economic region, divided into stages, each of which solved their problems, aimed at stabilizing the economy and the rise of the Crimean region, improving the standard of living of the local population ecology were discussed. Keywords: ecologization, investment activity cluster.
Currently, the environmental situation in the world is critical. Of global environmental problems can be mentioned: the destruction of thousands of species of plants and animals, largely destroyed the forest cover is rapidly shrinking the available stock of minerals, oceans not only depleted by destruction of living organisms, but also cease to be a regulator of natural processes in the atmosphere many places contaminated to the maximum allowable size, partially broken ozone layer, pollution of surface and disfigured landscapes. The pursuit of profit maximization, consumer attitude to nature only as an object to obtain certain benefits and wealth led to the destruction of ecosystems, some of which is impossible to recover. Only the formation of environmental awareness, strict government regulation, control can stop the processes of environmental destruction. Clustered systems could create favorable conditions for economic and investment activity of business entities, stable economic growth and a significant increase in efficiency investments to modernize production and infrastructure, increase output competitive in domestic and foreign markets products and services based on ecological compatibility.
Important role in shaping the competitive advantages of different sites and attract investment flows can play a cluster system. Due to the diversity of structures and scale clusters there are a number of approaches to their definition, creation and management [1, 2]. If the basis of their typology lay preferential orientation of integration ties (vertical, horizontal, geographical), then distinguished: vertical production chains, industrial, innovation, regional clusters [3, 4, 5].
Cluster form of organizational activity leads to the formation of a special form of innovation - "aggregate product innovation." Such innovation is a product of several companies or a research institute, which allows accelerating its spread network of relationships in the common economic space by integrating subjects, cluster and attract investment flows.
Regional cluster created on a geographical basis is the organizational form of competitive territorial hierarchical model of production with different levels of localization, which provides maximum economic and social benefits by minimizing taxes compared to similar industries .
In the works of M. Porter, D. Kelleher, A. Hobayby, N. Payrsy [4, 7, 8, 9] the general theoretical basis for the existence of competitive advantages and cluster systems in countries with established market economies are discussed.
P.V. Gudz considers the mechanism of action of the cluster as a quasi-similarity on which constructs a model of management of the region.  V.N. Vasilenko considers the development of the regional economy, based on the cluster system, as the basis for harmonization of regional economic space .
^ is to determine the approaches to stimulate investment activities of the regional cluster as a condition of development of region ecologization.
The objectives in creating the conditions for effective attraction of investments in the cluster include: creation of additional incentives to attract investment in the complex and cluster-related industries in the region, improving the governance mechanisms of corporate rights, strengthening the protection of small and medium business in the investment activity; expansion and modernization of transport infrastructure, strengthening the banking system in the region, promoting the concentration of banking capital, the practical implementation of mortgage arrangements, improving the credit rating of the region.
Tasks in the field of development of investment activity cluster are: activation of investment activity in the communal area of the region on the basis of agreements on joint investment, leasing, concessions, municipal loan, attracting venture capital funds and private funds, the creation of an electronic register of investment (innovation) proposals (projects) and sites, the creation and maintenance of a database export potential of the region; participation of the region in international exhibitions, fairs, forums, etc.; incentives to attract investment in scientific, technical and innovation activity.
Achievement of the object and created tasks will be achieved through the following priorities are:
- creation of conditions for effective investment are: efforts will focus on the formation of a transparent land market on competitive basis, improving the procedure of land allocation for agricultural purpose, streamlining development of the region, including the completion of the development schemes of the region plan, master plans (building settlements) region and a simplified procedure for the preparation of permits for construction, the introduction of a unified procedure for attracting investments for the initiators of investment projects, applicants for investments;
- increase investment attractiveness of the formation conditions for increasing investment attractiveness of the cluster;
- development of foreign trade activities: efforts will focus on the organization of work on the inclusion of the region in the list of regions of Ukraine, the European Union recommended for interregional co-operation in the framework of the neighborhood policy towards Ukraine, intensification of work in attracting funds from international financial institutions;
- investment on infrastructure development: development of the concept of corporatization of public utilities in order to increase their attractiveness, the formation mechanisms for attracting investments for the development and implementation of concession municipal loan, Contribution of higher investment in projects that will increase the level of energy and environmental security in the region, stimulating the development of investment potential transport system in the region;
- carrying advertising and exhibition activities: the main task is to organize the annual tourism, investment and innovation forums in the region in order to increase the region's attractiveness as a place of recreation and tourism, as well as an attractive investment image of the country, provides for the participation of representatives of the cluster in national and international exhibitions, publication promotional materials in key areas of the tourism cluster;
- training and retraining of personnel necessary for the development of the tourism cluster, investment management and innovation.
Expected duration of the restructuring of the economic complex of tourism and related industries can be divided into stages, each of which will carry out their tasks, aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economy of the Crimean region, improving the living standards of the local population.
The main objectives of the first phase, lasting two years are: search resources internal and external demand, the definition of the leading travel companies, revealing chains associated with them vertically below and parent companies and organizations, the definition of the horizontal branches passing through common channels or co-producing products and services, the definition of the scope of the tourism cluster, the distribution of tasks between the cluster members. The measures are needed to address the most pressing problems in the economy and social sphere of the Crimean recreation. Focus was on drafting and implementation of investment projects in the recreation, transportation, energy and utilities sectors, which provide the basis for strategic directions of regional development.
It is planned to introduce measures to improve investment opportunities Crimea and related infrastructure to attract foreign capital to the region's development. With the aim of revitalizing the foreign economic activity is expected to attract businesses and organizations in the region to participate actively in international forums and exhibitions are planned to be in Ukraine and beyond its borders.
In the second phase lasting the duration of the cluster into the main task is clear division of responsibilities between levels of the focal point of the cluster and creating a legal and market mechanisms of regulation of economic, environmental and social processes to ensure maximum openness of the economy. It is supposed to create a data base in terms of doing and logistics investment activity.
The third stage lasts during the whole period of the cluster. Its objectives are: the formation of loyalty to the activities of the cluster with the locals, finding, attracting or creating organizations that provide training cluster members, for special skills, technologies, information.
At the fourth phase lasting the lifetime of the cluster is necessary to strengthen the functioning of processes reorientation of investment in the Crimean recreation both proprietary and external planning for their development priorities, as well as to develop specific financing schemes of individual areas of infrastructure development in the region, which will allow for the implementation of projects and activities to use various funding sources: foreign investment, leasing, concessions, municipal loans, commercial banks, state, national and local budgets and enterprises' own funds.
At the fifth stage lasting the duration of the operation is planned cluster formation and development of regional infrastructure market, the further implementation of investment projects in the cluster, communal and social spheres, which consolidate the gains in the initial stages of the positive changes in the economic, social, foreign trade and investment. Developed and implemented projects to improve the structure of the economy by providing produce quality and competitive products and expand its sales markets. Also implements measures to re-equip and improve the efficiency of enterprises through the introduction of modern technologies in production and innovative methods in the management of business structures.
The main objectives of the sixth phase lasting the duration of the operation of the tourism cluster is an effective system for monitoring the activities of the cluster and the environment and the implementation of necessary measures of environmental protection, the development of complex administrative, organizational and economic decisions that reduce the anthropogenic impact on the environment.
Restructuring of the economic complex is only possible on the basis of balanced development. Measures for the establishment of the cluster can be provided from the budget of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, local budgets, own funds of enterprises and organizations interested area, bank loans of foreign investors and other sources.
Investment of projects can be provided with the following financial instruments:
- bank loans at current rates of 10-19% per annum, there is a positive credit history, collateral resistant, provide guarantees of property lending period from 1 to 5 years old, loan fees - from 1 to 5%, insurance - from 0.05 to 5 %;
- leasing both operational and financial: gross expenditures of rates - from 10 to 20% commission - from 1 to 10%; pledge acts to lease if you can not dismantle necessary financial guarantees; period - from 1 to 7 years, insurance - from 0.05 to 5%;
- creation of enterprises on the basis of concession: according to the rules of creation of these enterprises in the period of the contract the concessionaire company must develop, update, plant and equipment, improve production, create new jobs, etc.;
- municipal loans: bonds are issued under the program of local councils. They have a certain maturity period (up to 3 years), formed with the release rate of return depending on the state budget of the local council, with the formation of companies rated underwriters proposed size of the amount by which it is possible to issue bonds, maturity period, interest;
- creation of investment funds: the ability to work with both Ukrainian and foreign investors, investment period - from 1 year to 10 years under agreements with investors participate in the corporate governance of the enterprise, a company's capitalization, targeted funding, complete control over the performance of tasks; interest for use of financial means - 3% per annum; investment sizes - from 10 to 300 mln. UAH.
Conclusions. Commitments contained activities will ensure the creation of a favorable investment climate in Autonomous Republic of Crimea, improve the attractiveness of the activities of the subjects of the cluster for domestic and foreign investors. Creating a collective investment institutions provide appropriate conditions for the investors. A transparent system of the rights of all participants in the cluster by improving the system of corporate governance will be created.
Increase investment of resources is to be achieved in particular through the effective use of public investment, increase long-term lending to the real sector of the economy, foreign investment. The scale of investment activity expected to increase significantly, in particular, due to the intensive use of long-term lending to the real sector of the economy of the region, enhancing the attraction of foreign investment, efficient use of budgetary investment. Application concession arrangements will help to attract investors to the modernization of the infrastructure and investment intensive scientific-technical and innovation sphere - mass creation of new high-performance workplaces. Significant increase in the population as a means of attracting investment in fixed assets will be achieved through the development of non-bank financial institutions, the deposit insurance system, the introduction of mechanisms of mortgage lending.
Ensuring a comprehensive approach to the creation of a favorable investment climate in Crimea, activation of investment activity in the region will provide an opportunity to solve a number of systemic problems: infrastructure, improve the quality of life in the region, nature protection, restoration of cultural and historical monuments, the expansion of temporal boundaries of the tourist season, an increase of demand for the development of tourism, increasing productivity.
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