Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War."




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LOPATTO
Eduard K.


08.01.1894 – 15.09.1951

State awards and honors

Medal "Partisan of the Patriotic War."
The first doctor of technical sciences in Odessa, Professor.

Main directions of scientific activity

Production of superphosphate, sulfuric acid, chemical technology of explosives.

Doctoral dissertation

«The kinetics of the process and the design principles of ultra-intense installations for the production of sulfuric acid, which uses the method of liquid phase»

Place of defence

Moscow chemical institute of technology of D. I. Mendeleyev (Moscow)

^ Year of defence

1938

The life and career of E. K. Lopatto

Was born in 1893 in Kaluga in a family of the hereditary nobleman. His father was the medical officer, in resignation left in a rank of the general. It is known for the scientific works, for what is mentioned in one of the pre-revolutionary editions, devoted to prominent people of Russia.

The father understood that the son gravitates to technical science. Therefore E. Lopatto arrived not in a gymnasium, and in real school where more attention was paid to mathematical and natural sciences.

After the termination of the Kaluga real school Edward Ksaveryevich decided to continue study in the Moscow technical school (later - MVTU of Bauman). The father, seeing his son to Moscow, gave him a watch and drawing instruments with the admonition: be precise and accurate.

School associated with the names of famous scientists. There taught professor
N. E. Zhukovsky, S. A. Tchaplygin, P. P. Lazarev, V. G. Shukhov, S. I. Vavilov, A. N. Tupolev, A. S. Popov.

In 1916 E. K. Lopatto graduates from school, having been entitled the process engineer with the right of any production of construction works.

At this time military operations on World War I fronts proceeded. The young technician sent to the laboratory of explosives organized at school.

After its disbandment in 1917 E. K. Lopatto was transferred to the Vinnytsia superphosphate plant subordinated to military department. Production of superphosphate is connected with receiving the major reagents at production of a number of explosives: pyroxylin, smokeless gunpowder, nitroglycerine. The knowledge acquired here and skills prepared
E. K. Lopatto for the subsequent life.

Starting work at the plant as a chemical engineer in 1920 E. K. Lopatto becomes his technical director. Soon it began works on reconstruction and expansion of all shops of plant.

In 1928, Vinnitsa factory won the first prize at the National competition.
In 1930, E. K Lopatto moved to Odessa and has served as chief engineer of superphosphate plant.

In Vinnytsia at plant Edward Ksaveryevich undertook the solution of a problem of production of sulfuric acid in absolutely new way. Pilot and theoretical studies proceeded in Odessa. The doctoral dissertation "The kinetics of the process and the design principles of ultra-intense installations for the production of sulfuric acid, which uses the method of liquid phase" became their end. In 1938 at the Moscow chemical institute of technology of D. I. Mendeleyev its brilliant protection took place. It was the first Doctor of Engineering in Odessa.

Then doctor's degree didn't give any material advantages. To science served disinterestedly, didn't rush the whole world to the aid of future scientist for the sake of a doctor's ostepenennost of higher education institution. Also it wasn't necessary to protect in the beginning the Candidate degree.

In this work the problem of kinetics of process of the mechanism and speed of course of reactions for the first time was put and solved, optimum modes of productional offices of vitriolic plants are found, the choice of their design is reasonable.

Instead of expensive and difficult towers for processes of a kislotoobrazovaniye pipes are used. Productivity of the offered device is 15 times higher, than in tower system.

Further development and researches E. K. Lopatto continued with the pupils. Subsequently defended dissertations V. V. Vyazov, A. V. Kortnev and I. M. Kagansky.

In 1935 E. K.Lopatto developed a way of continuous receiving superphosphate which in tens times surpassed productivity of an old way.

Natural endowments, tendency to development new, aspiration to the scientific generalizations, gave a rich know-how and organizing abilities.

E. K. Lopatto on a post of the head of the department of chemical technology in chemical and technological, and then - in polytechnical institutes.

In 1936 E. K. Lopatto was appointed the dean of chemical and technological faculty of the Odessa polytechnical institute and held this position within 12 years, about day of death.

E. K. Lopatto - the indisputable leader of Department, the favourite dean and the professor, the idea man, the authoritative scientist, the organizer and the head of scientific seminars, the indispensable participant of student's and cathedral meetings out of institute walls.

In the summer the Department gathered on giving the chief where always there was a fun and jokes. Jokes, draws, disguise to unrecognizability were combined with scientific and methodological disputes and discussions. At home - always at the large Desk. He's never been as busy as the rest-hours. «The more busy, the more time», - he said in answer to the questions: «When you all have time?».

War began. Then - a siege and 73 days of defense of Odessa. Before the Rate order "not to leave, and to evacuate armies and equipment from Odessa" members of the commission as a part of the director of institute and city authorities invited E. K. Lopatto to conversation where it was offered to it to remain for the period of occupation in Odessa for fight against the enemy. Edward Ksaveryevich's what qualities were summarized before inviting him to conversation? After all off the military register it is struck on sight, no officer rank I had, the soldier, ordinary, untrained, non-party, a noble origin. On the other hand, still as the student I worked in laboratory of explosives; selfless service to the Homeland, production worker and scientist, good strong-willed organizer. On a question: "What decision will be?" E. K. Lopatto without hesitation answered: "I will fight where I will bring more benefit to the Homeland and harm to enemies".

Before institute termination of work Edward Ksaveryevich advised Bolshevik plant on production of explosive for needs of the front - the enterprise made it about two tons per day.

Two professors - E. K. Lopatto and A. M. Zharnovsky - made offers on mix creation with the best characteristics of ignition and burning duration, with a perfect design of a detonator for incendiary bottles which were used for fight against tanks of the opponent. The first skilled bottles in the specialroom behind the closed gate of the Odessa polytechnical institute were tested. The Odessa glass plant gave more than 90 thousand bottles to the front.

In the beginning the consultant, and then the chief of factory shop of plant of Petrovsky
E. K. Lopatto worked. About 300 thousand grenades were made by plant for the front.

During occupation of Odessa the task to create mines of the slowed-down action for destruction of the enemy military ships was received. E. K. Lopatto's knowledge and experience in MVTU and at plant of. Petrovsky allowed to create the tiny mines disguised under pieces of coal which at hit in a fire chamber blew up a ship copper. 4 military ships were blown up.

Before retreat of Germans and the Romanian from Odessa punishments of local population began. It was necessary to disappear in the Odessa catacombs before liberation of Odessa.

E. K. Lopatto was at institute in the first day of release of the city. In September 1944 the chemical and technological faculty was restored, professor E. K.Lopatto - again his dean and the head of the department of chemical technology until the day, when his heart stopped beating.

In September, 1944 E. K. Lopatto was awarded by a medal " Partisan Patriotic war". In 1975 there was V. N. Sokolov's book "Feat of professor Lopatto". The resolution of the Odessa Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies of 19.08.1971. "About perpetuating of memory of scientist-chemist E. K. Lopatto". Vysoky Lane is renamed into the street of professor Lopatto. On the house where he lived, the memorial board is established.

Scientific publications: monographs, abstracts of thesis of dissertations

Окисление сернистого газа в жидкой фазе. – О. : ОИИ, 1939. – 172 с.

Производство суперфосфата. – Х. : Укр. работник, 1931. – 75 с.

Articles

Исследование работы безнасадочных аппаратов в производстве серной кислоты нитрозным методом / соавт. Л. И. Александрова // Сб. хим. фак. ОГУ. – К. : Изд-во Киев. гос. ун-та, 1952. – С. 5 – 40.

К вопросу о скорости гидролиза нитрозы и десорбции окислов азота / соавт. М. Л. Варламов // Тр. ОГУ. – 1949. – Т. V. – С. 97 – 127.

Кинетика нитрозного процесса и факторы, определяющие выбор продукционных аппаратов в серно-кислотном производстве / соавт. : В. В Вязов, М. Зильберман,
Е. Л. Кричевская // Тр. Одес. индустр. ин-та. Химико-технол. фак. – О., 1941. – Вып. III (9). – С. 29 – 95.

Методика расчета башен Гловера / соавт. А. А. Сбитнева // Журн. хим. пром-сти.
– 1936. - № 19. – С. 1101 – 1108 ; № 20. – С. 1159 – 1164.

О кинетике окисления сернистого газа нитрозой в сернокислотном растворе / соавт. М. Я. Шапиро // Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1937. - № 4. - С. 266 – 276.

О кислотостойкой замазке для футеровки сернокислотных башен / соавт. :
А. И. Сенгер, М. М. Мишнаевская // Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1934. - № 11. – С. 58 – 59.

О непрерывном способе получения суперфосфата методом распыления / соавт. Н. К. Фирштенберг // Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1935. - № 5. – С. 495 – 497.

О потенциале абсорбции окислов азота серной кислоты / соавт. В. В. Вязов // Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1941. - № 8. – С. 24 – 26.

О растворимости сернистого газа в серной кислоте / соавт. А. М. Савинаев // Журн. приклад. химии. – 1934. - № 6. – С. 881 – 886.

Об интенсификации камерных систем Винницкого суперфосфатного завода
// Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1926. - № 7. – С. 36 – 38.

Окисление сернистого газа в жидкой фазе // Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1936.
- № 2. – С. 85 – 92.

Окисление сернистого газа нитрозой в жидкой фазе // Журн. хим. пром-сти. – 1933. – № 9. - С. 121 – 124.

Про розчинність сіркового газу в сірчаній кислоті / соавт. А. М. Савинаев // Сб. тр. укр. науч.-исслед. хим. ин-та треста «Укрхим» в Одессе. – О., 1935. – Вып. 1. – С. 97 – 106.

Discoveries, patents, inventions

А. с. № 53387 СССР. Аппарат для непрерывного производства суперфосфата / соавт. Н. К. Фирштенберг. – 1934.

А. с. № 79301 СССР. Способ производства серной кислоты. – 1949.

Literature about life and activity of scientist

Балацкий В. Г. Подвиг Одессы : путеводитель / В. Г. Балацкий. – О. : Маяк, 1978. – 162 с.

Белоус А. Г. Улицы Одессы / А. Г. Белоус, И. М. Коляда. - О. : Маяк, 1987. – 64 с.

Історія Одеського університету за 100 років. – К. : Університет, 1968. – С. 431 – 432.

Лопатто А. Э. Э. К. Лопатто. Инженер, ученый, партизан Великой Отечественой. Одесса ... Улица Лопатто / А. Э. Лопатто. – О. : Маяк, 1991. – 144 с.

Одесский политехнический институт : краткий ист. очерк (1918 - 1968) / авт.-сост. Е. И. Цымбал, В. В. Никулин. – К. : Изд-во Киев. ун-та, 1968. – С. 50, 53, 61, 73, 76, 81, 104.

Позигун А. И. Памяти профессора Эдуарда Ксаверьевича Лопатто / А. И. Позигун, А. Г. Большаков, Г. Е. Дмитриевский // Сб. тр. хим. фак. ОГУ. – О., 1953.
– Т. 3. – С. 133 – 135.

73 героических дня / С. Вольский [и др.]. - О. : Маяк, 1988. – 320 с.

Соколов В. Н. Подвиг профессора Лопатто / В. Н. Соколов. – О. : Маяк, 1975. – 52 с.

Спрага Л. Г. Таємними стежками / Л. Г. Спрага, Я. М. Тумарков. – К. : Політвидав, 1965. – 71 с.

Тульчинская В. П. Памяти профессора Эдуарда Ксаверьевича Лопатто
(1893 - 1951) / В. П. Тульчинский [и др.] ; АН СССР // Журн. приклад. химии. – 1952.
– Т. XXV, вып. 10, окт. – С. 1122 – 1124.

Ярмульский Г. Бомбу зробить професор / Г. Ярмульский // Чорномор. комуна.
– 1970. – 14 жовт. – С. 3 – 4.

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