Методические указания по самостоятельной работе студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык профессиональной направленности»




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НазваниеМетодические указания по самостоятельной работе студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык профессиональной направленности»
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ТипМетодические указания
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^ Letter- writing expressions



Opening

Formal

Dear Sir/ Madam

Dear Mr Jones

Dear Sirs ( Brit.)

Dear Gentlemen ( Am.)

Informal

Dear Maria

^ Saying thank you

Thank you for…

Thanks for…

Reason for writing

I am writing to

inform you that….

enquire about…

apologize for…

I am writing to

tell you…

ask you about…

say sorry for…

^ Asking for help

Please could you…?

I would be grateful if

you could…

Could you?...

Can you?...

Offering help

We will be pleased/ happy to ( send you)…

I’ll sell ( send you)…

^ Enclosed documents

I enclose…

Please find enclosed ( my CV)…

I’m sending you…

Closing remark

I look forward to

hearing from you.

meeting you

seeing you.

( I’m) looking forward

to hearing from you.

to seeing you again.

Finishing

Yours faithfully

Yours sincerely

Sincerely yours

Yours truly

Best Wishes

Best Regards

Yours


Questions

  1. What expressions do we use in formal letters?

  2. What expressions do we use in informal letters?

  3. Whom do we write formal ( informal) letters?


3.Translate the text
Covering Letter
Dear Mr. Roberts

I am now sending you the files ( my resume, the scanned documents) as you asked. Please find an attached document. I was informed that your company was looking for a lawyer. I have seen your job advertisement in the newspaper. And I thought I might be of help. Please, have a look at them and let me know if I can provide you with any further information. Hope it will help you to form an opinion about any professional skills and make a decision about future possible collaboration.

Looking forward to hearing from you,

Best regards,

Irina Ivanova.


  1. Write your own letters.



THEME 3.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PCs.
TASKS

        1. Read the text and then answer the questions.

Personal computers have a lot of applications, however, there are some major categories of applications: home and hobby, word processing, professional, educational, small business and engineering and scientific.

^ Home and hobby.Personal computers enjoy great popularity among experimenters and hobbyists. They are an exciting hob­by. All hobbyists need not be engineers or programmers. There are many games that use the full capabilities of a computer to provide many hours of exciting leisure-time adventure.

The list of other home and hobby applications of PCs is al­most endless, including: checking account management, bud­geting, personal finance, planning, investment analyses, tele­phone answering and dialing, home security, home environment and climate control, appliance control, calendar management, maintenance of address and mailing lists and what not.

Word processing.At home or at work, applications software, called a word processing program, enables you to correct or modify any document in any manner you wish before printing it. Using the CRT monitor as a display screen, you are able to view what you have typed to correct mistakes in spelling or grammar, add or delete sentences, move paragraphs around, and replace words. The letter or document can be stored on a dis­kette for future use.

Professional.The category of professional includes persons making extensive use of word processing, whose occupations are particularly suited to the desk-top use of PCs. Examples of other occupations are accountants, financial advisors, stock brokers,tax consultants, lawyers, architects, engineers, educators and all levels of managers. Applications programs that are popular with persons in these occupations include accounting, income tax preparation, statistical analysis, graphics, stock market forecast­ing and computer modeling. The electronic worksheet is, by far, the computer modeling program most widely used by profes­sionals. It can be used for scheduling, planning, and the exam­ination of "what if situations.

Educational.Personal computers are having and will contin­ue to have a profound influence upon the classroom, affecting both the learner and the teacher. Microcomputers are making their way into classrooms to an ever-increasing extent, giving impetus to the design of programmed learning materials that can meet the demands of student and teacher.

Two important types of uses for personal computers in edu­cation are computer-managed instruction (CMI), and comput­er-assisted instruction (CAI). CMI software is used to assist the instructor in the management of all classroom-related activities, such as record keeping, work assignments, testing, and grading. Applications of CAI include mathematics, reading, typing, com­puter literacy, programming languages, and simulations of real-world situations.

What are the main spheres of PC application? 2. Do you enjoy computer games? 3. Is it necessary for a person to be an analyst or a programmer to play computer games? 4. What other home and hobby applications, except computer games, can you name? 5. What is "a word processing program"? 6. What pos­sibilities can it give you? 7. Can you correct mistakes while typ­ing any material and how? 8. What other changes in the typed text can you make using a display? 9. Which professions are in great need of computers? 10. How can computers be used in education?


        1. Decode these abbreviations:


^ PC; PU; CU; ALU; CPU; MPU; IBM; DOS; CRT; ROM; RAM; 1С; SSI; MSI; LSI; VLSI; MP; CD; I/O; IOP; CMI; CAI.


THEME 4.VIRTUAL REALITY.

TASKS

  1. Translate this text.

Virtual Reality

No long ago computers were considered an amazing invention. Today they form part of our everyday life. The latest thing today is Virtual reality. It is a computer- simulated environment that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world or imagined words. This system can transport the user to exotic locations such as a beach in Hawaii or the inside of the human body. The Virtual reality system is still in the early stages of its development. At the moment it is necessary to put a large helmet on your head to see the simulated world and you have to wear a special glove on your hand in order to manipulate the objects, you see there . Lenses and two miniature display screens inside the helmet create the illusion that the screen surrounds you on every side. You can “ lookbehind” computer- generated objects, pick them up and examine them, walk around and see things from a different angle. Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback in medical and gaming applications. The simulatedenvironment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience- for example, in simulations for the pilot or combat training- or it can differ significantly from reality, such as in Virtual games. Virtual reality plays an important role in combat training for the military. It allowsthe recruits to train under a controlled environment where they are to respond to different types of combat situations. Virtual reality is also used in flight simulation of the Air Force where people are trained to be pilots. 3D Virtual reality is becoming widely used for urban regeneration and planning and transport projects. Developers of Virtual reality say its potential is powerful.

  1. State whether the statements are True ( T) or False ( F) and give an explanation.

  1. Today Virtual reality is not the latest thing.

  2. Virtual reality can’t simulate physical presence in places in the real world.

  3. Already today Virtual reality is used in medicine, planning operations without damaging

the body.

d) Some advanced , haptic systems now include tactile information.

e)The Virtual reality system is still in the early stages of its development.

f) Developers of Virtual reality say its potential is powerful.

g) Many science fiction books and films have imagined characters being “trapped in Virtual reality”.

^ THEME 5.COMPUTER OF MY DREAM.

TASKS

1.Check if you know the following verbs:

To consist, to include, to make up, to contain, to execute, to increase,

to install, to perform, to compose of, to turn on, to turn off, to store, to start

up, to operate, to attach, to enable, to allow, to print, to provide.
2. Translate these sentences into Russian

a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.

в) The switches are usually in one of two states: magne­tized or demagnetized.

c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for process­ing and storage the information and for solving problems.

  1. Choose the right variant:

1.The data needed for solving problems are kept in the

aпрямая соединительная линия 7) memory; b) input device; c) output device

2.Inputting information into the computer is realized by
means of .

a) a printer; b) letters; c) diskettes

3.A computer can carry out arithmetic-logical operations

aпрямая соединительная линия 8) quickly; b) instantaneously; c) during some minutes

4.______________ __Computers have becomein homes, offices, research

institutes.

a) commonwealth; b) commonplace; c) common room

a) information; b) production; c) exploration

5. Computers are used for image .

a) processing; b) operating; c) producing

6. Computers help in economy.

a) environment; b) management; c) government.

4.Make up your own dialogue on the theme using the words, the word combinations of ex1, 2, 3.

^ THEME 6.INPUT DEVICES.
TASKS

  1. Read and translate the text.


INPUT DEVICES

There are several devices used for inputting information into the computer: a keyboard, some coordinate input devices, suchas manipulators ( a mouse, a track ball), touch panels and graph­ical plotting tables, scanners, digital cameras, TV tuners, sound cards etc.

When personal computers first became popular, the most common device used to transfer information from the user to the computer was the keyboard. It enables inputting numerical and text data. A standard keyboard has 104 keys and three more ones informing about the operating mode of light indicators in the upper right corner.

Later when the more advanced graphics became to develop, user found that a keyboard did not provide the design capabili­ties of graphics and text representation on the display. There appeared manipulators, a mouse and a track ball, that are usu­ally used while operating with graphical interface. Each software program uses these buttons differently.

^ The mouse is an optic-mechanical input device. The mouse has three or two buttons which control the cursor movement across the screen. The mouse provides the cursor control thus simplifying user's orientation on the display. The mouse's pri­mary functions are to help the user draw, point and select im­ages on his computer display by moving the mouse across the screen.

In general software programs require to press one or more buttons, sometimes keeping them depressed or double-click them to issue changes in commands and to draw or to erase images. When you move the mouse across a flat surface, the ball located on the bottom side of the mouse turns two rollers. One is tracking the mouse's vertical movements, the other is track­ing horizontal movements. The rotating ball glides easily, giv­ing the user good control over the textual and graphical images.

In portable computers touch panels or touch pads are used instead of manipulators. Moving a finger along the surface of the touch pad is transformed into the cursor movement across the screen.

Graphical plotting tables (plotters) find application in draw­ing manuscript texts. You can draw, add notes and signs to electronic documents by means of a special pen. The quality of graphical plotting tables is characterized by permit­ting capacity, that is the number of lines per inch, and their ca­pability to respond to the force of pen pressing .

^ Scanner is used foroptical inputting of images (photos, pictures, slides) and texts and converting them into the computer form.

Digital videocameras have been spread recently. They enable getting videoimages and photographs directly in digital comput­er format. Digital cameras give possibility to get high quality photos.

Sound cards produce sound conversion from analog to digi­tal form. They are able to synthesize sounds. Special game-ports and joysticks are widely used in computer games.
2. Answer the questions using the text.
1. What devices are used for inputting information into the computer? 2. What was the most common device in early per­sonal computers? 3. What is the function of a keyboard? 4. Why do many users prefer manipulators to keyboard? 5. How does the mouse operate? 6. What is its function? 7. What role does the ball on the bottom of the mouse play? 8. What is used in portable computers instead of manipulators? 9. What is the touch pad's principle of operation? 10. Where do graphical plot­ting tables find application?

3. Translate into English the following word- combinations:

Введение информации; координатные устройства вво­да; манипуляторы; мышь; трекбол; сенсорная панель; гра­фические планшеты; цифровые камеры; сканеры; ТВ тю­неры; стандартная клавиатура; числовая и текстовая информация; световые индикаторы; клавиши; режим ра­боты; презентация текста на мониторе; графический ин­терфейс; программные средства; оптико-механическое "устройство ввода; управлять движением курсора; упрощать ориентацию пользователя на экране; указывать и выбирать изображения;удерживать кнопки в нажатом состоянии; двойное нажатие; стирать объекты; ровная поверхность; вращать ролики; следить за вертикальным движением; легко скользить; портативный компьютер; рукописный текст; посредством; разрешающая способность.

THEME 7.GRAMMAR EXERCICES.
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