Introduction to “Empire and Nationalism”

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Introduction to “Empire and Nationalism”
The courses in this thematic area touch upon certain important issues, which are exploited in various identity discourses and are highly contested. We suggest the following general principles, which should allow the teachers to escape ideological bias and pitfalls of “historical policy” (if they wish):

  1. don’t use the language of nation-building when you teach history of nationalism

  1. don’t identify yourself (and don’t allow your students to identify themselves) with a certain side in historical conflicts (as much as possible). Do not use “we”, “our” and similar words when describing historical actors. At the same time explicitly show and encourage reflection on epistemological and cultural incapacity of being equally impartial toward every side

  2. focus on interactions, not on particular actor, try to understand the rationale of all the sides of the conflict, assuming, that each actor has his “truth“, and the task is not to judge, who “is right”, but to listen to all the sides of the conflict. That should also show the way of approaching contemporary conflicts.

  3. groupness, including ethnic and national, is something which has to be explained, not an explanation

  4. Do not project current political geography and identities into the past, show the evolution and alternatives

  5. Imagined geography should be a subject for analysis, not a point of departure in research strategy

  6. Avoid teleology in periodization of nation-building processes

  7. Empires should be seen as systems of interaction of multiple actors and agencies, and not only as an interaction of repressive center and liberating national movement

  8. ask questions not only about malfunction and decay of empires, but also about their longevity and effectiveness

  9. Comparative approach, besides its value as research strategy, allows to sell bitter truths to various student groups, which suffer from strong nationalist indoctrination

  10. Entangled history allows avoid limitations of regional approach and allows go beyond national, regional and imperial borders.

  11. Nationalism is not only about culture and ethnicity. Nationalism should be examined and understood at the intersection of various identities – not only ethnic and ethnoreligious, but also social, socioeconomical, professional etc. Focus on “fluid” identities should not overshadow the importance of “firm” institutions and structures

Empire and Nationalism in Eastern Europe.
The following document is not a course description, it should be rather viewed as material for tailoring courses in this broad thematic area.
Each teacher will have to decide for him/herself which parts of the syllabus he/she would like to use while teaching such courses as “Empire and Nationalism”, “Nationalism in Eastern Europe” (or “History of a particular nationalism and nation-building”), “History of Empire(s)”. For example, the teacher will decide whether he/she wants to spend one class or four classes discussing topics 1 and/or 2, either treating them as brief introduction to a course or as a focus of a course.
The document also provides certain guidance for teaching these subjects in a comparative perspective.
Topic 1. Conceptual framework. Terminology.

Empire, indirect and direct rule; center, core and periphery; colonization and colony; frontiers – borders – borderlands. Geography of power in the empires.

How history of Empire is possible?

The value and the limits of comparative approach. Entangled histories.
*Terry Martin. The Soviet Union as Empire: Salvaging a Dubious Analytical Category… Ab Imperio, 2002, #2, pp. 94-95 – (provides various definitions of empire)
*Michael Doyle. Empires. Cornell UP, p.30-47 (focus on effective control of the periphery, both formally included and not included into an empire)
Dominic Lieven.^ Empire. The Russian Empire and its Rivals. London: John Murray, 2000, p.3-25, 445-449. (accent on hard power and empire as a mechanism of mobilization of resources for foreign policy, particularly military action)

Ливен, Доминик. Российская империя и ее враги с XVI века до наших дней / Пер. с англ. – М.: Европа, 2007. С.39-74 («Империя: слово и его значения»).
Alexey Miller and Alfred J. Rieber. Introduction, in A. Miller and Alfred J. Rieber (eds.) ^ Imperial Rule. Budapest – New York, CEU Press, 2004, pp.1-6. (discusses the concept of “imperial rule”, direct and indirect rule)
*A. Miller. The Value and the Limits of Comparative Approach to the History of Contiguous Empires. .

(discusses entanglements of imperial histories)
Ilya Gerasimov, Sergei Glebov, Aleksandr Kaplunovskii, Marina Mogilner, Alexander Semyonov “In Search of New Imperial History,” ^ Ab Imperio, no. 1 (2005): 33-56. (argument about the epistemological predicament of empire as a conceptual framework to study historical experience), Russian version is in Новая имперская история постсоветского пространства. Казань: центр изучения национализма и империи, 2004

Ann Laura Stoler, Carole McGranahan, "Refiguring Imperial Terrains," Ann Stoler, Carole McGranahan, and Peter C. Perdue (Eds.). Imperial Formations and their Discontents. Santa Fe: School of American Research, forthcoming, 2007. a good argument for a synthetic picture of spread of social practices of governance in culturally divided realm, also an argument against exceptionalism

Ronald Grigor Suny, “The Empire Strikes Out: Imperial Russia, “National” Identity, and Theories of Empire” in Ronald Grigor Suny and Terry Martin (eds.) ^ A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) (the most articulate position of empire from the vantage point of political science as an ideal type, embodying continuities across different temporal periods), translated in Russian: Р. Суни. Империя как она есть: имперская Россия, «национальное» самосознание и теории империи // Ab Imperio. 2001. № 1-2. С. 9-72.
Бейссингер М. Переосмысление империи после распада Советского Союза // Ab Imperio. 2005. № 3. С. 35–88. (taking a perceptional turn in approaching the category of empire and outlining the rapturous impact of the discourse of nationalism on understanding the empire)
Jane Burbank and Mark von Hagen, “Coming into the Territory: Uncertainty and Empire”, in Jane Burbank, Mark von Hagen, Anatoly Remnev (eds.), Russian Empire: Space, People, Power, 17001930, (Indiana University Press, 2007), pp. 1-29.

(informal introduction that accounts for the regional perspective in the methodology of studies of empires and outlines the historical processes of imperial governance and social interaction through the regional diversity.)
Austin Jersild, “The Discourse of Empire”, in Austin Jersild, Orientalism and Empire. North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier, 1845-1917, (Mc-Gill Queen’s Univ. Press, 2002), pp. 3-11. (discussion on the relationship between empire and frontier as it concerns making imperial borderlands in 19th-century Russia’s Caucasus).
Daniel R. Brower and Edward J. Lazzerini (eds.) Russia’s Orient. Imperial Borderlands and Peoples, 1700-1917. p. XI-XIX.
Ann Laura Stoler and Frederick Cooper, “Between Metropole and Colony. Rethinking a Research Agenda” in Ann Laura Stoler and Frederick Cooper (eds.) ^ Tensions of Empire. Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World, (Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997).
Karen Barkey and Mark von Hagen (eds.) After Empire. Multiethnic Societies and Nation-Building. The Soviet Union and the Russian, Ottoman and Habsburg Empires. Boulder, Co., 1997.
Phillip Ther. “Imperial instead of National History: Positioning Modern German History on the Map of European Empires,” in A. Miller and Alfred J. Rieber (eds.) Imperial Rule. Budapest – New York, CEU Press, 2004, pp. 47-69 (title speaks for itself – helps to show how much of “imperial” is hidden in national narratives)
Владимир Бобровников, Кембриджская история России и борьба историографий империи (Рец. на: The Cambridge History of Russia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2006. Vol. I. From Early Rus to 1689. Ed. by Maureen Perrie; Vol. II. Imperial Russia, 1689–1917. Ed. by Dominic Lieven; Vol. III. The Twentieth Century. Ed. by Ronald Grigor Suni.) // Вестник Евразии, 2007, № 1, c. 190–197.
Topic 2. Conceptual framework. Terminology.

Ethnicity, nationalism, identifications.

Do “nations” act in history?

Perceiving Empire in nationalist perspective.

Imperial, national and regional historic narratives.
Hall J. Nationalisms: Classified and Explained // Daedalus, Summer 1993 P.1-28.

(review of the state of art)

Rogers Brubacker and Fred Cooper. Beyond “identity”. Theory and Society, 2000, #1, p. 1-47 (questions the concept of identity, suggests alternative terms, questions, research strategies) translated into Russian: Ab Imperio 3 (2002)
Brubaker R. Myths and Misconceptions in the Study of Nationalism // John A. Hall (ed.) The State of the Nation. Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism. Cambridge, 1998, P.272-306, Russian translation: Р. Брубейкер. Мифы и заблуждения в изучении национализма // Ab Imperio. 2000. № 1-2. С. 151-165; 247-268.

Brubaker R. Ethnicity without groups. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 2004 (collection of his main articles on the issues of identity and nationalism. Questions traditional understanding of group-ness)
Suny, Ronald and Michael Kennedy (Eds.) Intellectuals and the Articulation of the Nation. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, 1999. Insights about the intimate relationship between intellectuals and nationalism
A.Miller. Between Local and Inter-Imperial: Russian Imperial History in Search for Scope and Paradigm. Kritika, 2004, #1, p. 5-19. (makes the case for studying nationalist movements in context, in their interaction with other nationalisms and non-nationalist actors, discusses imagined geographies in the history of empires)
Verdery K. Whither "Nation" and "Nationalism"? // Daedalus, Summer 1993.

(also in Mapping the nation / edited by Gopal Balakrishnan ; with an introduction by Benedict Anderson London : Verso, 1996) (interprets nation as a key symbol and operator in modern political life)
Benedict Anderson. Imagined Communities... p. 67-111.

Андерсон, Б. Воображаемые сообщества: Размышления об истоках и распространении национализма / Пер. с англ. – М.: Канон-Пресс-Ц, Кучково поле, 2001. Гл. «Перепись, карта, музей». С.180-203.
Брубейкер Р. Именем нации: размышления о национализме и патриотизме // Ab Imperio. 2006. № 2. С. 59-79. An argument in line with Benedict Anderson against the blurring of the boundary between racialized discourses and practices of exclusion and nation-centered discourses and practices of inclusion and mobilization, also an argument against a far pushed argument of irrelevance of nation-state in the epoch of globalization

Jane Burbank and Mark von Hagen, "Coming into the Territory: Uncertainty and Empire," Jane Burbank, Mark von Hagen, Anatolii Remnev, eds., ^ Russian Empire: Space, People, Power, 1700-1930 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007), 1-29, informal introduction that accounts for the regional perspective in the methodology of studies of empires and outlines the historical processes of imperial governance and social interaction through the regional diversity.
Armstrong, John A. Nations Before Nationalism. - Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 1982. - 411 pp.
Breuilly, John. Nationalism and the State. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1985. - 474 p.
Eley, Geoff, and Ronald Grigor Suny. “From the Moment of Social History to the Work of Cultural Representation,” in Ejusd, eds., Becoming National. A Reader (New York 1996), 3-37.

Oommen T.K. Situating ethnicity conceptually // Ethnicities. 2001. V.1б №1. P.13-23.
Ethnicity. Theory and experience. Cambridge Mass., 1975. P.53-84.
McCrone D. The Sociology of Nationalism. London – New York, 1998. Chapter 1.
Billig M. Banal Nationalism. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, 1995. Р.37-59, 93-127.
Wodak R., de Cillia R., Reisigl M. The Discursive Construction of National Identity. Edinburgh, 1999.
Bhabha H.K. Nation and Narration. London – New York, 1990. Introduction.
Йоргенсен М., Филлипс Л. Дискурс-анализ. Теория и метод. Харьков, 2004. C.75-76
Миллер А. Национализм и формирование наций. Теоретические исследования 80-90-х годов // Миллер А. И. (ред.) Нация и национализм. М., ИНИОН, 1999. (Добротные рефераты книг Гроха, Андерсона, Э.Смита, Геллнера и др.)
Topic 3. Patterns of Imperial Growth. Role of local elites in the struggle for the borderlands. Grand Strategies of the Empires. Empires as Great Powers – mobilization of resources, balancing “the concert of powers”, strategies of expansion and containment.
R: John LeDonne. The Russian Empire and the World. N.Y., Oxford. 1997. pp.9-20, 347-362. (Introduces the concept of core area)
LeDonne, John, The Grand Strategy of the Russian Empire, 1650-1831 (Oxford&NY: Oxford University Press, 2004), 3-12, 15-38, 61-81. (Concepts of outer and inner frontiers, client states and societies; the issue of intentionality of the imperial expansion).

Alfred Rieber. Persistent Factors of Russian Foreign Policy: an interpretive essay… (challenges certain “standard” interpretations of Russian expansionism)

Рибер А. Устойчивые факторы российской внешней политики: попытка интерпретации // Американская русистика: Вехи историографии последних лет. Антология. Советский период. – Самара: Изд-во «Самарский университет», 2000. С.94-145.

Alfred Rieber. Struggle over the Borderlands, Frederick Starr, ed., The Legacy of History in Russian and the New States of Eurasia (N.Y., L. 1994) p.61-69 (contested borderlands)

Develops some points in: Alfred J. Rieber. Comparative Ecology of Complex Frontiers, in A.Miller and Alfred J. Rieber (eds.) Imperial Rule…p.179-210.
Lieven. Empire on Europe’s Periphery: Russian and Western Comparisons. In – A.Miller, A.Rieber (eds.) Imperial Rule. (stresses the significance of hard power, analyses grand strategies of Empires)
Dominic Lieven. “Dilemmas of Empire 1850-1918. Power, Territory, Identity. Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 34, No. 2. (Apr., 1999), p. 165. (brief introduction to the main points of his book “Empire”)

Paul W. Schroeder. Austria, Great Britain and the Crimean War. The Destruction of the European Concert. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1972, pp. 392-427. (very good introduction to understanding of “the concert of powers” and analysis of causes for it’s decline)
Zenon Kohut. Russian Centralism and Ukrainian Autonomy. Imperial absorbtion of the Hetmanate. 1760-1830's. Cambridge, Mass. 1988. p. 9-23, 191-209, 299-305. (role of local elites in expansion, mechanism of transfer from the periphery status into a part of the core)
Matsuzato, K. “Iadro ili periferiia imperii? General-gubernatorstvo i malorossiiskaia identichnost’ // Ab Imperio, 2002. № 2, pp. 605-615.

Cherniavsky, M. “Khan or Basileus?: An Aspect of Russian Medieval Political Thought,” M. Cherniavsky, ed. The Structure of Russian History. Interpretative Essays. New York, 1970. (В данной статье автор рассматривает истоки идеологии российского самодержавия, которые, по мнению автора, восходят к двум доминантным в истории России имперским традициям: Византийской империи и Золотой орды. Автор прослеживает рецепцию данных традиций в ранней русской истории, а также указывает на роль автохтонной княжеской традиции Рюриковичей в сложении титула правителя и идеологии Московского государства и Российской империи.)

А.И. Филюшкин. Проблема генезиса Российской империи // Новая имперская история постсоветского пространства. Казань: центр изучения национализма и империи, 2004

С. 375-408 (exploration of early modern practices of interaction of Muscovite princes with the appanage legacy of Muscovy and with the neighboring polities in the system of steppe diplomacy)

Plokhy, Serhii. ^ The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 270-289

(explores the emergence of the idea of proto-national entity – as distinct from the ruler and his state -- under Peter the Great and argues that the Russian Empire as imagined and built by Peter was not intended to be a multiethnic state)

^ В.О.Бобровников, И.Л.Бабич (отв. ред.), Северный Кавказ в составе Российской империи. Сер. Окраины Российской империи (Istoria rossica). М.: Новое литературное обозрение, 2007, с. 33-86 (гл. 2-3). (Кавказское направление российской внешней политики и его меняющиеся приоритеты в 18 – пер. пол. 19 вв., экономические причины распространения и сдерживания российской экспансии, формирование имперского фронтира у горцев и казаков, бюрократизация местных военных элит)

^ С.Н. Абашин, Д.Ю. Арапов, Н.Е. Бекмаханова (отв. ред.), Центральная Азия в составе Российской Империи Сер. Окраины Российской империи (Istoria rossica). М.: Новое литературное обозрение, 2008, гл. 2-4. («Добровольное» присоединение и завоевание мусульманских владений Казахской степи и Средней Азии в контексте административного строительства империи)

LeDonne J.P. Building an Infrastructure of Empire in Russia’s Eastern Theater, 1650s—1840s // Cahiers du monde russe. Vol. 47 (2006), no. 3. P. 581-608.

(makes an interesting point about the beginning of the empire-building in Russia, dating it as late as the end of the 18th century and distinguishing the notion of empire from that of a (proto)national Russian state)
Sunderland, Willard. Taming the Wild Field: Colonization and Empire on the Russian Steppe. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2004

(focuses both on the imperial factors behind colonization and ethnic heterogeneity of colonizers).

Topic 4. The Social Structures of the Empire. Serfdom order.
Alexander Gerschenkron. Europe in the Russian Mirror. Cambridge, 1970, pp. 62-129.
Leopold Haimson. The Problem of Social Identities in Early Twenteeth Century Russia. // Slavic Review, Vol.47, N.1, Spring1988. pp.1-20.
Rieber, A. J. “The Sedimentary Society” // Russian History, 1989, Vol.16, Nos.2-4, Festschrift for Leopold H.Haimson, ed. by R.Wortman, P.353-376.

Charles Steinwedel. Making Social Groups, One Person at a Time…

Стейнведел Ч. Создание социальных групп и определение социального статуса индивидуума: идентификация по сословию, вероисповеданию и национальности в конце имперского периода в России // Российская империя в зарубежной историографии: Работы последних лет. Антология / П.Верт, П.Кабытов, А.Миллер, сост. – М.: Новое издательство, 2005. С.610-633.
Steven L. Hoch. The Serf Economy, the Peasant Family, and the Social Order. In: Jane Burbank & David Ransel. Imperial Russia… 1998. p.199-209.

Steven L. Hoch. Serfdom and Social Control in Russia. Petrovskoje, a Village in Tambov. Chicago and London. 1986, pp.65-191.(shows how serfdom operated on the community level, how some peasants were involved in the system as beneficiaries)

Wirtschafter Kimerling, Elise. Social Identity in Imperial Russia. DeKalb, 1998 (places a strong accent on fluidity of estate boundaries and social identities in imperial Russia; questions the traditional dichotomy between state and society)

Topic 5.: Church, Religious Communities, Religious policy, Conversions.

Religion and political mobilization. Managing religious heterogeneity in Empire, religion as an instrument of foreign policy.

Religion as the means of imperial affiliation. Recognizing “foreign faiths” in the well-ordered police state. Toleration vs. Orthodox Missionary efforts in the borderlands.


Invention of tradition and imperial religious identifications. Making Muslim “church” and official “clergy” in the borderlands.

Gregory L. Freeze The parish clergy in nineteenth-century Russia : crisis, reform, counter-reform. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1983,
Nicholas B. Breyfogle, “Caught in the Crossfire? Russian Sectarians in the Caucasian Theater of War, 1853-56 and 1877-78”, in M.David-Fox, P.Holquist, A.Martin, ^ Orientalism and Empire in Russia, (Bloomington, 2006), pp. 234-269.

(discusses resettlement of religious dissidents from the core “Orthodox” areas like Central Russia and the Volga-Ural region to the Caucasian bordelands, which allowed the state to strengthen imperial frontier and the Russian presence in Transcaucasia)
Paul Werth, "The Russian Empire and the Armenian Catholicos at Home and Abroad," in Reconstruction and Interaction of Slavic Eurasia and Its Neighboring Worlds, ed. Osamu Ieda and Tomohiko Uyama (Sapporo:Slavic Research Center, 2006), pp. 203-235. (Пол Верт. Глава церкви, подданный Императора: Армянский католикос на перекрестке внутренней и внешней политики империи, 1828-1914 // Ab Imperio. 2006. # 3 (this is a significantly reworked text from that published in Sapporo, discusses the role of internal policy factors and the motivation, tied to external policy tasks, in the policy of the Russian empire)
Werth, P. W. ^ At the Margins of Orthodoxy. Mission, Governance, and Confessional Politics in Russia's Volga-Kama Region, 1827-1905. Ithaca; L., Cornell Univ. press, 2001.

Werth, P.W. “Schism Once Removed: Sects, State Authority and Meanings of Religious Toleration in Imperial Russia”, in A. Miller and Alfred J. Rieber (eds.) Imperial Rule. Budapest – New York, CEU Press, 2004, P.85-108.
R. P. Geraci, “Confronting Islam”, in R. P. Geraci, Window to the East. National and Imperial identities in late Tsarist Russia, (Ithaca; L.: Cornell univ. press, 2001, ch. 3), pp. 86-115.

(offers crucial insight into the role of missionary Orientalism in confessional politics of the imperial polity in the Volga-Ural region)
Of religion and empire : missions, conversion, and tolerance in Tsarist Russia / edited by Robert P. Geraci and Michael Khodarkovsky Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 2001
Vladimir Bobrovnikov, “Islam in the Russian Empire”, in D. Lieven (ed.), ^ The Cambridge History of Russia. Vol. II. Imperial Russia, 1689–1917. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 202–223.

(discusses interaction between imperial polity and Muslim populations in post-Petrine Russia with an emphasis on religious governance, recognition of Islam and its effects, making Muslim clergy as an imperial invented tradition)
Robert Crews, “A Church for Islam”, “The State in the Mosque”, in Robert Crews, ^ For Prophet and Tsar, (Harvard Univ. Press, 2006, ch. 1-2), pp. 31-142.

(imperial confessional politics from the late 18th to the late nineteenth centuries with a focus on making Muslim clergy and official Islamic networks of regional muftiates, the author tends to exaggerate the role of imperial unity and Russia’s Muslim core of the Volga-Ural region but as a whole this is a very useful contribution in teaching religion and empire)
Campbell, Elena. The Autocracy and the Muslim Clergy in the Russian Empire (1850s--1917), in: Russian Studies in History, vol. 44 (2005), 8-29.

(addresses the evolution of the imperial legislation on Muslim spiritual authorities and stresses the regional differences in how the state approached Islam – in the Crimea, Volga—Kama region).
Adeeb Khalid, ^ The Politics of Muslim Cultural Reform: Jadidism in Central Asia, (Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1998), ch. 1-2, pp. 19-80.

(Recent but already classical work on Islam, colonialism and emerging nationalism in Russia’s Central Asia. Readings from its first chapters will help teaching the history of religious affiliations in the imperial borderlands in the context of colonial conquest and social reforms)

Irina Paert, " “Two or Twenty Million?” The Languages of Official Statistics and Religious Dissent in Imperial Russia," Ab Imperio 3 (2006)

Sergei Zhuk, "“A Separate Nation” of “Those Who Imitate Germans”: Ukrainian Evangelical Peasants and Problems of Cultural Identification in the Ukrainian Provinces of Late Imperial Russia," Ab Imperio 3 (2006) (also available in the book format)

Sub-topic: Conversions
Freeze, Gregory. Lutheranism in Russia: Critical Reassessment, in: Medick, Hans / Schmidt, P. (Hg.) Luther zwischen den Kulturen: Zeitgenossenschaft – Weltwirkung. Göttingen, 2004, 297-317 ( Protestant conversions to Orthodoxy—what was specific about them?)
Geraci, Robert, ^ Window on the East: National and Imperial Identities in Late Tsarist Russia (Cornell University Press: Ithaca, 2001), 15-115 (especially the chapter on the Orthodox “anti-Muslim” missions --- explores Orthodox stereotypes of the religious “fanaticism” and limits of conversion policy
Werth P.W., “Coercion and Conversion: Violence and the Mass Baptism of the Volga Peoples, 1740-55”, Kritika, vol. 4, no. 3 (summer 2003), pp. 543-570.
Верт, П., ““Инородцы” об обрусении: религиозное обращение, духовенство из коренного населения и политика ассимиляции в России конца имперского периода”, Ab Imperio, 2002, No. 2, c. 105–134.
Klier, John. State Policies and the Conversion of Jews in Imperial Russia // Of Religion and Empire. Missions, Conversion, and Tolerance in Tsarist Russia / Ed. by R. Geraci and M. Khodarkovskii. Ithaca&London: Cornell University Press, 2000. P. 92-112.
Avrutin, Eugene, “Racial Categories and the Politics of (Jewish) Difference in Late Imperial Russia,” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 8: 1 (2007)

Idem. The Jewish Intelligentsia, State Administration, and the Myth of Conversion in Tsarist Russia // F. Björling, A. Pereswetoff-Morath (Eds.). Words, deeds and values: The Intelligentsias in Russia and Poland during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Lund, 2005 (Slavica Lundensia, 22). Pp. 99-118

(Avrutin makes a strong point that, for all the legal provisions, Jewish converts to Orthodoxy stayed subject to cultural discrimination)
Sub-topic --- The Russian Empire as a “Confessional State”:
Crews, Robert. Empire and the Confessional State: Islam and Religious Politics in Nineteenth-Century Russia, in: American Historical Review vol. 108 (2003), no. 1, p. 50-83.
Sacred Stories: Religion and Spirituality in Modern Russia / Ed. Mark D. Steinberg and Heather Coleman. Indiana University Press, 2007.
Werth, Paul. In the State’s Embrace? Civil Acts in an Imperial Order, in: Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, vol. 7 (2006), 433—458.
Religion in a social context
Freeze ChaeRan Y. Jewish Marriage and Divorce in Imperial Russia. Brandeis UP, 2002.
Werth Paul. In the State’s Embrace? Civil Acts in an Imperial Order // Kritika. 2006. Vol. 7, no. 3. P. 433-458.
Breyfogle Nicholas. Heretics and Colonizers: Forging Russia’s Empire in the South Caucasus. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2005.
Гаврилин, А., Очерки истории Рижской епархии. 19 век, Рига: Филокалия, 1999
Д. Сталюнас, Может ли католик быть русским? О введении русского языка в католическое богослужение в 60-х годах XIX в., Верт П., П.С. Кабытов, А.И. Миллер (ред). Российская империя в зарубежной историографии. Работы последних лет: Антология. М.: Новое издательство, 2005. С. 570-588

Vytautas Merkys, Bishop Motiejus Valanиius, Catholic Universalism and Nationalism, ^ Lithuanian Historical Studies, vol. 6, 2001, p. 69–88

Долбилов, М., ““Царская вера”: массовые обращения католиков в православие в северо-западном крае российской империи (1860-е гг.)”, Ab Imperio, 2006, No. 4, c. 225–270

Д. Сталюнас, Роль имперской власти в процессе массового обращения католиков в православие в 60-е годы XIX столетия, ^ Lietuviш katalikш mokslo akademijos metraрtis, t. 26, 2005, c. 307-347

М. Долбилов, Д. Сталюнас, «Обратная уния»: Проект присоединения католиков к православной церкви в Российской империи (1865-1866 гг.), Славяноведение, 2005, № 5, c. 3-34

D. Staliunas, Making Russians. ^ Meaning and Practice of Russification in Lithuania and Belarus after 1863, Amsterdam/New York, NY: Rodopi, 2007, p.131-188

Верт, П. “Трудный путь к католицизму. Вероисповеданная пренадлежность и гражданское состояние после 1905 г.”
Лавров А.С. Колдовство и религия в России. 1700-1740. М., 2000.
Смилянская Е.Б. Волшебники. Богохульники. Еретики. Народная религиозность и «духовные преступления» в России XVIII в. М.: Индрик, 2003.
Усманова Д. Мусульманские представители в российском парламенте. 1906-1916. Казань, 2005.
Усманова Д. «Ваисовский Божий полк староверов-мусульман»: Языки религиозного, сословного, политического и национального противостояния в Российской империи // Ab Imperio. 2006. № 3. С. 255-318.
Кэмпбелл Е. Мусульманский вопрос в России: история обсуждения проблемы // Исторические записки. № 4 (122). М., 2001. С. 132-157.

Comparative perspective:

Selim Deringil. Redifining Identities in the late Ottoman Empire: Policies of Conversion and Apostasy (in A.Miller, A. Rieber. Imperial Rule. N.Y.-Budapest, 2004)

*Fikret Adanir. Religious Communities and Ethnic Groups under Imperial Sway: Ottoman and Habsburg Lands in Comparison. // Dirk Hoerder et al. (ed.) The Historical Practice of Diversity. Transcultural Interactions from Early Modern Mediterranean to the Postcolonial World. New York, London, Berghahn Books, 2003, PP.54-86.

Kemal H. Karpat, ‘Millets and Nationality: The Roots of the Incongruity of Nation and State in the Post-Ottoman Era’, in ^ Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, vol. 1, 141-169
Victor Roudometof, “From Rum millet to Greek Nation: Enlightenment, Secularization, and National Identity in Ottoman Balkan Society, 1453-1821”, in Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Vol. 16/1 (May 1998)
Bogdan Murgescu, “’Phanariots’ and ‘Pamanteni’. Religion and Ethnicity in Shaping Identites in the Romanian Principalities and the Ottoman Empire” in Maria Craciun, Ovidiu Ghitta (eds.) ^ Ethnicity and Religion in Central and Eastern Europe. Cluj: Cluj University Press, 1995, 196-204
Toader Nicoara, “Le Discours antigreque et antiphanariot dans la societe roumaine (XVIIe et XVIIIe sciecles)” in Maria Craciun, Ovidiu Ghitta (eds.) Ethnicity and Religion in Central and Eastern Europe. Cluj: Cluj University Press, 1995, 205-211
“Nationalism and Religion in the Balkans since the 19th Century” (IX, 7-50), in Peter F. Sugar, ^ East European Nationalism, Politics and Religion. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999
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