3. 5 Assessment of Hazardous Weather Phenomena




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3.4.5 Assessment of Hazardous Weather Phenomena

Impact on Plant Productivity

In the recent past climate anomalies and atmospheric processes caused by them had considerable negative consequences which are estimated by thousands of human lives and losses in millions of dollars. The ecological conditions of the environment determine the existence of various kinds and the productivity of agroecosystems, resources of the biosphere. It is especially evident now, when a number of hazardous phenomena and the level of general contamination of the air, the water and the soil have considerably increased. Natural balance is disturbed and this contributes to the occurrence of natural phenomena posing a threat of an ecocatastrophe. The course is intended to provide the studies of causes for hazardous phenomena, their impact on agricultural production as well as damage and loss inflicted by them.


Number

In

Succession

Name of the Module of the Discipline and Its Profile

Number of Academic Hours

Subtotal

Auditorium Studies

Self Studies

Lectures

Laboratory and Practical Classes

3.4.5.1

Environmental Quality as a Problem of the 21st Century

1. Environmental Problems, Caused by Man-Induced Changes. Measures on Nature Protection from Extreme Cases which are Conditioned by Heavy Natural Phenomena

2. Hazardous Meteorological Phenomena Having Impact on Crop Productivity. Criteria for Estimation. Anomalous Temperatures, Thundershowers, Hail, Heavy Precipitation, Dust Storms, Soil Erosion

3. Consequences of Natural Phenomena. Causes, Characteristics. Risk of Hazardous Phenomena in the Territory of Europe, Bulgaria, Ukraine (Powerful Cyclones, Tsunamis, Floods, Landslides, Lightnings, Avalanches and others)

4. Assessment of Hazardous Phenomena Impact on Plant Productivity

25
4
7

7

7

8
2
2

2

2

6
-
2

2

2

11
2
3

3

3

3.4.5.2


Hazardous Phenomena, Their Impact on the Environment

1. Droughts and Dry Winds. The Underlying Causes. Types of Droughts. Criteria for Estimation

2. Agrometeorological Indices of Dry Winds. Criteria for Dry Wind Estimation. Arid Conditions and Yield

3. Dust Storms. Dust Storm Danger in the Territory of Europe, Bulgaria and Ukraine

4. Forest Fires, Chemical Features of Fires. Causes of Oxidization. Estimation of Fire Danger in Agriculture

25
7

7


5

6



6
2

2


1

1


8
2

2


2

2


11
3

3


2

3


3.4.5.3

World Extreme Weather Phenomena and their Influence on Agriculture

1. The Problem of Water Resources and Agricultural Product Conformance.

2. Climatic Risks of Hazardous Phenomena Impact on the Environment in Europe, Bulgaria and Ukraine.

3. Adaptation of the Environment to the Climate Change.

4. Economic Consequences of Extreme Phenomena for Agricultural Production

25

4

8


6
7

6

1

2


1
2

6

-

2


2
2

13

3

4


3
3




Total

75

20

20

35



LITERATURE


  1. Polevoy, A.N., 1992: Agricultural Meteorology. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, St. Petersburg, 420 pp. (In Russian)

Полевой А.Н. Сельскохозяйственная метеорология. – С.-П.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1992. – 420 с.


  1. Polevoy, A.N., 1983: Theory and Calculation of Crop Productivity. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, Leningrad, 117 pp. (In Russian)

Полевой А.Н. Теория и расчет продуктивности сельскохозяйственных культур. –Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1983. – 117 с.


  1. Buchinskiy, I.E., 1976: Droughts and Hot Dry Winds. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, Leningrad, 214 pp. (In Russian)

Бучинский И.Е. Засухи и суховеи.-Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1976. – 214 с.


  1. Lichikaki, V.M., 1974: Overwintering of Winter Crops. Kolos, Moscow, 205 pp. (In Russian)

Личикаки В.М. Перезимовка озимих культур. – М.: Колос, 1974.

– 205 с.


  1. Moiseychik, V.A., 1975: Agrometeorological Conditions and Overwintering of Winter Crops. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, Leningrad,

295 pp. (In Russian)

Моисейчик В.А. Агрометеорологические условия и перезимовка озимих культур. –Л.: Гидрометеоиздать, 1975. - 295 с.


  1. Polovyi, A. M., Bozhko, L. Yu., Sytov, V. M., Yarmolska, O.E., 2003:

A Practical Course in Agricultural Meteorology. Odessa, 400 pp. (In Ukrainian)

Польовий А.М, Божко Л.Ю., Ситов В.М., Ярмольська О.Є. Практикум з сільськогосподарської метеорології.- Одеса, 2003. - 400 с.


  1. Shevelukha, V.S., ed., 1978: Resistance of Cereal Crops to Environmental Factors. Uradzhay, Minsk, 191 pp. (In Russian)

Устойчивость зерновых культур к факторам среды / Под ред В.С. Шевелухи. – Минск.: Ураджай. 1978. - 191 с.


  1. Shulgin, A.M., 1978: Agrometeorology and Agroclimatology. Hydrometeorological Publishing House, Leningrad, 200 pp. (In Russian)

Шульгин А.М. Агрометеорология и агроклиматология. – Л.: Гидрометеоиздат, 1978. – 200 с


  1. Babakhanov, N., 1990: Elemental Nature Phenomena: the Essence and Classification. “VGO” Publishing House, 122 p., 2nd edition. (In Russian)

Бабаханов Н. Стихийные природные явления: сущность и классификация. Изв. ВГО, 122, вып.2, 1990.


  1. Gerasimov, I., Zvonkova, T., 1978: Natural Disasters: Study and Methods of Control. “Progress” Publishing House, Moscow. (In Russian)

Герасимов И., Звонкова Т. Стихийные бедствия: изучение и методы борьбы. М.: Прогресс.1978.


  1. Kuzmova, K., 2003: Agrometeorology. Academic Publishing House of the Agricultural University. (In Bulgarian)

Kyзмова K. Aгрометeoрoлoгиa. Aкадемично издательство на Аграрния университет, 2003. (In Bulgarian)
12. Adams, R.M., 1989: Global Climate Change and Agriculture: An Economic Perspective. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 71 (5):1272-79.
13. Alexandrov V.A., Hoogenboom, G., 2000: The Impact of Climate Variability and Change on Crop Yield in Bulgaria. Agriculture and Forest Meteorology 104:315-27.
14. Berkes, F., Jolly, D., 2002: Adapting to Climate Change: Social-Ecological Resilience in a Canadian Western Arctic Community. Conservation Ecology 5(2):118.
15. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Scientific Assessment of Climate Change. (1990) Report prepared by Working Group 1, World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environmental Program, New York.
16. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). IPCC Second Assessment Summary for Policy Makers: the Science of Climate Change (1996) IPCC Mimeograph.
17. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Climate Change: the Scientific Basis (2001) http://www.ipcc.ch/.
18. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Special Report on Emissions.

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