Словарь терминов по стилистике английского языка

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- or

- or

- or or or


- or

- or or


^ See: , ,
contextual meaning

a meaning imposed by and depends on the context;

Source: :58,64

lexical meaning

dictionary meaning

лексическое значение

- refers the mind to some concrete concept, phenomenon, or thing of objective reality, whether real or imaginary;

- a means by which a word-form is made to express a definite concept;

- are closely related to a concept;

- are sometimes identified with a concept;

^ Source: :58-59

grammatical meaning

structural meaning

грамматическое значение

- refers our mind to relations between words or to some forms of words or constructions bearing upon their structural functions in the language-as-a-system

^ Source: :58

denotational meaning

logical meaning

referential meaning

direct meaning

логическое значение

- the precise naming of a feature of the idea, phenomenon or object;

- the name by which we recognise the whole of the concept;

- is liable to change;

- of one may denote different concepts;

- has reference not directly to things or phenomena of objective reality

^ Syn.: logical meaning, referential meaning, direct meaning

Source: :64,66

Ant.: ,

See: ,
emotional meaning

evaluative meaning

stylistic meaning

connotative meaning

emotive meaning

- also materialises a concept in the word, but, unlike logical meaning, it has reference not directly to things or phenomena of objective reality, but to the feelings and emotions of the speaker towards these thighs or to his emotions as such;

- bears reference to things, phenomena or ideas through a kind of evaluation of them;

e.g. I feel so darned lonely. (Gr.Green)

- has function to reveal the subjective, evaluating attitude of the writer to the things or events spoken of;

e.g. She has not a flirt, not even a coquette. (Galsworthy)

Source: :66

Ant.: , referential meaning, direct meaning

See: ,
contextual emotive meaning

- an , acquired by a word only in a definite context

e.g. liberty, justice, stunning, smart

Source: :66

See: ,
nominal meaning

- indicates a particular object out of a class;

- serves the purpose of singling out one definite and singular object out of a whole class of similar objects;

e.g. Hope, Browning, Taylor, Scotland, Black, Chandler, Chester

Source: :68

See: ,

supra-phrasal unit

сверхфразовое единство

- a combination of sentences presenting a structural and semantic unity backed up by rhythmic and melodic unity;

- is used to denote a larger unit than a sentence;

- generally comprises a number of sentences interdependent structurally (usually by means of pronouns, connectives, tense-forms) and semantically (one definite thought is dealt with);

- can be extracted from the context without losing its relative semantic independence;

- can be embodied in a sentence if the sentence meets the requirements of this compositional unit;

- though usually a component part of the paragraph, may occupy the whole of the paragraph;

- This structural unit, in its particular way of arranging ideas, belongs almost exclusively to the , though it may be met with to some extent in the
. Other styles, judging by their recognised leading features, don not require this mode of arranging the parts of an utterance except in rare cases which may be neglected.

^ Source: :194-196

, ,


- a graphical term used to name a group of sentences marked off by indentation at the beginning and a break in the line at the end;

- a distinct portion of a written discourse showing an integral unity;

- (as a linguistic category) a unit of utterance marked off by purely linguistic means: intonation, pauses of various lengths, semantic ties which can be disclosed by scrupulous analysis of the morphological aspect and of the component parts, etc.

- a linguistic expression of a logical, pragmatic and aesthetic arrangement of thought;

- the length normally varies from eight to twelve sentences (in - one or two);

^ Source: :198-199

See: , ,

{{пропущены принципы деления на абзацы в разн. стилях}}
indirect onomatopoeia

a combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense (“echo – writing”) (I.R.G.)

e.g. “And the silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain“(E.Poe)

- is very effectively used by repeating word which themselves are not onomatopoeic

e.g. Silver bells … how they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle … // To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells // From the bells, bells, bells, bells, // Bells, bells, bells, – // From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. (E.Poe - The Bells)


the repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combination of words

@ full rhyme

identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable (might – right, needless – heedless)



- incomplete rhymes:

[m3]@ vowel rhymes

the vowels of the syllable in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different (flesh -–fresh – press)


[m3]@ consonant rhymes

show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels (worth – forth, tale – tool – Treble – trouble; flung – long)

^ See:



See: < rhythm>, ,

1) a flow, movement, procedure, etc. characterised by basically regular recurrence of elements or features, as beat, or accent, in alternation with opposite or different elements or features (Webster’s New World Dictionary)

2) a combination of the ideal metrical scheme and the variations of it, variations which are governed by the standard (I.R.G.)

^ See: , ,
whitewashing device

set expressions

include: clichés, proverbs and sayings, s, quotations, s


a) a akin to a proverb, the only difference being that epigrams are coined by individuals whose names we know, while proverbs are the coinage of the people

b) terse, witty, pointed statement, showing the ingenious turn of mind of the originator

e.g. A God that can be understood is no God. (S.Maugham)

e.g. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. (Keats)

e.g. He that bends shall be made straight. (S.Maugham)

e.g. Art is triumphant when it can use convention as an instrument of its own purpose. (S.Maugham – The Razor’s Edge)

^ Source:

See: ,


an indirect reference, by word or phrase, to a historical, literary, mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of everyday life made in the course of speaking or writing

e.g. No little Grandgrind had ever associated a cow in a field with that famous cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt, or with that yet more famous cow swallowed Tom Thumb; it had never heard of those celebrities (Dickens – Hard Times)

(The that can be derived from the two allusions, one to the nursery “The House that Jack build” and the other to the old tale “The history of Tom Thumb”)

^ Source:

e.g. "Don't count your boobies until they are hatched"(J.Thurber)

See: ,


a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word, phrase, clause, sentence, or other sequence which interrupts a syntactic construction without otherwise affecting it, having often a characteristic intonation and indicated in writing by commas, brackets or dashes. (Random House Dict. of the Engl. Lang.)

- a variant of

^ See: ,


a by which separate things, objects, phenomena, properties, actions are named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which, being syntactically in the same position (homogeneous parts of speech), are forced to display some kind of semantic homogeneity, remote through it may Seem. (I.R.G.:216)

- integrates both homogeneous and heterogeneous elements into one whole, unlike

e.g. The principal production of these towns … appear to be soldiers, sailors, Jews, chalk, shrimps, officers and dock-yard men. (Dickens – Pickwick Papers)

^ See:
gap-sentence link

a way of connecting two sentences Seemingly unconnected and leaving it to the reader’s perspicacity to grasp the idea implied, but not worded

e.g. She and that fellow ought to be the sufferers, and they were in Italy. (Galsworthy)

(the second part, which is hooked on to the first by the conjunction and, ^ Seems to be unmotivated or, in other words, the whole sentence Seems to be logically incoherent. But this is only the first impression. After a more careful supralinear semantic analysis it becomes clear that the exact logical variant of the utterance would be: ‘Those who ought to suffer were enjoining themselves in Italy’)

- is generally indicated by and or but

- the omissions are justified because the situation easily prompts what has not been said;

- is based on the peculiarities of the spoken language and is therefore most frequently used in represented speech;

- has various functions: it may serve to signal the introduction of inner represented speech, it nay be used to indicate a subjective evaluation of the facts; it may introduce an effect resulting from a cause which has already had verbal expression;

- displays and unexpected coupling of ideas;

- aims at stirring up in the reader’s mind the suppositions, associations and conditions under which the sentence uttered can really exist

e.g. She says nothing, but it is clear that she is harping on this engagement, and – goodness know what. (Galsworthy)

e.g. It was an afternoon to dream. And she took out Jon’s letters. (Galsworthy)

^ Source:


is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author

e.g. ’For what is left the poet here? // For Greeks a blush – for Greece a tear. (Byron – Don Juan)

- does not contain statement unlike a ;

- assume a semi-exclamatory nature;

- is very often used in oratory;

- sometimes gives the impression of an intimate talk between the writer and the reader;

e.g. Scrooge knew he was dead? Of course he did. How could it be otherwise? Scrooge and he were partners for I don’t know how many years. (Dickens)

- may also remain unanswered (there are only hints of the possible answers)

e.g. How long must it go on? Now long must we suffer? Where is the end? What is the end? (Norris)

- \[presumes that the questioner does not know the answer\]

^ Source:

See: ,
there is/are the


В большинстве случаев существительное в конструкции с вводящим there употребляется с неопределённым артиклем или без артикля. Употребление определённого артикля, однако, не исключается.

e.g. [u]There was[/u] harmony between father and son again and [u]the old understanding[/u]. (P.Abrahams)

Часто употребление определённого артикля в таких случаях обусловлено стилистически, что находит отражение в переводе.

e.g. There was the long drive home; the long drive and the warm dark and the pleasant closeness of the hansom cab. (Galsworthy) – Всё тот же длинный путь, всё та же дорога и знакомая приятная теснота кеба.

^ Source:Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965. С. 297

See: ,
stylistic analysis of poetry

стилистический анализ поэзии

- звуковая сторона поэтической речи (ритмика, рифма, эвфония и звукопись);

[m3]^ See: , , ,

- использование лексики (синонимия, антонимия);

[m3]See: , ,

- тропы (метафора, метонимия)

[m3]See: , ,

- использование экспрессивных возможностей морфологии (грамматические архаизмы, глагольные формы, артикль);

[m3]^ See: , ,

- использование экспрессивных возможностей синтаксиса;



See: ,
stylistic analysis of prose

стилистический анализ прозы

- использование функциональных стилей, архаизация;

[m3]^ See: ,

- фонетический аспект речи;

[m3]See: ,

- использование системной организации лексики (синонимия, антонимия);

[m3]See: , ,

- тропеические средства (метафора, метафорическое сравнение, сюжетная метафора, метонимия)

[m3]See: , ,

- стилистические возможности морфологии (грамматическое и художественное время, употребление артиклей, употребление отрицания);

[m3]^ See: , , ,

- выразительные возможности синтаксиса;


- построение содержания текста:

[m3]- образ рассказчика;

[m3]- динамика и статика текста;

[m3]- трансформация реальности (фантастические объяснения, впоследствии получающие более или менее реалистическое объяснение);

[m3]- позиция наблюдателя;

^ See: ,



e.g. I have a must. A win in this match is a must.

e.g. Green waters flowers every day.

e.g. Running exercises leg muscles.

e.g. She madams everybody.

e.g. Turn your oughts into shalls.

e.g. How-do-you-do's were exchanged. (Sweet)

e.g. Warmed by the hot tea, he warmed to the argument.

e.g. Sharp ups and downs marked 1999 for the European Union.

e.g. She came dressed up to the nines.

e.g. Finally, to quiet him, she said uneekly, she hadn't really meant it.

e.g. The differences are now being narrowed.

e.g. Her face, heated with his own exertions, chilled suddenly.

e.g. When he saw who it was, he condescended a sarcastic Thank you, but no Madam. He did not madam anybody, even good customers like Mrs Moore. (Dickens)

e.g. ... the bounding vitality which had carried her through what had been a life of quite sharp ups and downs. (McCrone)

e.g. Don't bustle me," said Eeyore, getting up slowly. "Don't now-then me." (Milne)

gender markers

linguistic features of “female” and “male” languages

- men and women Seem to differ in terms of their communicative competence or, in other words, in their knowledge of how to use language in society;

- women and men typically employ different linguistic “styles” of speech;

- men and women use certain linguistic patterns which are typical of “powerful” and “powerless” (the “men’s” and “women’s” styles of) language;

- Male and female speakers tend to use different kinds of expressions when the make a request. This reflects the different ideas between male and female speakers about gender and intimacy.


gender markers of male language

- tend to change their expressions depending on the degree of their intimacy with the listeners

- use polite forms of making a request when the listeners are not intimate.

- if those who do them a favour are close friends, they will ask them in a more casual way, even bluntly without showing any politeness.

- generally use more polite expressions when they speak to female friends than to males

- choose from different expressions, depending on whom they are talking to


gender markers of female language

- are found not to change their expressions as much depending on the sex of the persons they speak to

- generally use more polite expressions both to the male and female listeners alike.

- tend not to change their way of speaking, depending on whom they are talking to.


1. The use of ‘hedges’ of ‘

e.g. sort of, I guess, kind of, you know, well, you See, just

e.g. [u]Well[/u], we were, [u]uh[/u], very close friends. [u]Uh[/u], she was even [u]sort of like[/u] a mother to me. (Lady Diana Spencer)

2. Excessive use of super-polite forms of expression.

e.g. would you please; I’d really appreciate it if you would do smth; would you be so kind and do something, I awfully ask you to do smth …

3. The use of ‘tag questions’.

e.g. The crisis in Kosovo is terrible, isn’t it? But you can switch on the light, can you?

4. Speaking ‘in italics’, i.e. the use of emphatic so and very which is equivalent to [u]underlining[/u] words in written language, often followed by the sudden rise in intonation pitch:

e.g. This is a very important subject. This problem is of so much importance. It is a very very serious.

e.g. It took a long time to understand why people were so interested in me.(Lady Diana Spencer)

5. The use of the ‘empty’ adjectives or adverbs.

e.g. divine, daunting, charming, sweet, adorable, tremendous, significant, phenomenal, desperate, desperately

6. Hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation.

7. Lack of sense of humour which means that women are usually poor at telling jokes comparing to men.

8. Direct quotations.

e.g. I asked him: ‘Why did you come home so late?’ and he said: ‘I was in the pub having some beer with my friends’

e.g. ’It was a long way off’, I thought. ... I said to my husband: ‘What do I do now?’ and he said: ‘Go to the other side and speak to them’. (Lady Diana Spencer)

9. Special vocabulary, e.g. the use of diminutive forms of specialise colour terms.

e.g. piglet, kitty, chubby, sweetheart, honey

e.g. The Queen wore a yellow dress and a green hat. He was in a dark blue suit.

10. Question intonation in declarative contexts, which may cause a problem for interpreters desperately trying to figure out whether may cause what was said should be regarded as a statement or as a question.

Source: (Coats 1986, O’Barr 1982, Lakoff 1975) cit. by Максимов С.Є., Радченко Т.О. Перекладацький аналіз тексту. – К.: КНЛУ, 2001. – 105 с.


^ See:
mixed metaphor

two or more metaphors that sound strange or funny when you use them together

e.g. This is a great headache lifted off my shoulders. – С моих плеч свалилась ужасная головная боль.

^ Source: , 895

e.g. Для того чтобы поставить детей на ноги, надо снять их со своей шеи.

e.g. Ни что так не ограничивает свободу слова, как набитый рот.

See: ,
double predicate

двойное сказуемое, глагольно-именное сказуемое

a special type of predicate which presents a crossing of two predicates – a verbal predicate and a nominal predicate

e.g. The moon rose red. (= The moon was red when it rose)

e.g. She went away quite a child; she returned a grown-up woman.

e.g. In that part of Africa the natives go naked all the year round.

e.g. At this idea he went mad.

Source: Ганшина М.А. Василевская Н.М. Практ. грамм. англ. яз. М., 1964. C. 350


combines the features of two different types of predicate: the simple verbal predicate, expressed by a notional verb denoting an action or process performed by the person/non-person expressed by the subject, and the compound nominal predicate, expressed by a noun or an adjective which denotes the properties of the subject in the same way as the predicative of the compound nominal predicate proper does.

e.g. The moon was shining cold and bright.

e.g. My daughter sat silent.

e.g. He died a hero.

e.g. She married young.

e.g. The light came grey and pale.

e.g. The men stood silent and motionless.

e.g. They met friends and parted enemies.

e.g. The moon rose round and yellow.

There are a number of verbs that often occur in this type of predicate, performing the double function of denoting a process and serving as link verbs at the same time. They are: to die, to leave, to lie, to marry, to return, to rise, to sit, to stand, to shine, etc.. As in Modern English is a growing tendency to use this type of predicate, the verbs occuring in it are not limited by any particular lexical class.

Source: Кобрина Н.А. и др. Грамм. англ. яз. СПб., 2001. C. 342


В роли первого компонента выступает предикативная форма глаголов, имеющих значение: движения (to go, to come, to run, to fly, to ride, to rise, to fall, to return, etc.), положения в пространстве (to stand, to lie, to sit, to hang, etc.), состояния (to live, to die, etc.), проявления физических свойств, воздействия на органы чувств (to feel, to look, to ring, to smell, to taste, etc.), кажимости, видимости (to Seem, to appear), неожиданности, случайности (to prove, to turn out)

^ Source:Бархударов Л.С., Штелинг Д.А. Грамматика английского языка. М., 1965. С. 305


e.g. This will taste bad. (J. Steinbeck)

e.g. The sky shone pale... (Mansfield)

e.g. The sun rose brightly. (London)

e.g. The sun was shining bright and cold. (London)

e.g. The snow fell soft on his face and hair. (A. Maltz)

e.g. The moon shone peacefully. (Brontë).

e.g. She flushed crimson... (Galsworthy)

e.g. He looked stained and worried. (Galsworthy)

e.g. Dusk had gathered thick. (Galsworthy)

e.g. ...Soames stood invisible at the top of the stairs... (Galsworthy)

e.g. ... the poplar tops showed sharp and dense against the sky. (Galsworthy)

e.g. The sun shone out bright and warm... (Dickens)

e.g. Around and around the house the leaves fall thick. (Dickens)

e.g. He resigned his office and died an old man. (Daily Worker)

e.g. They \[carnations\] arrived perfectly fresh. (Mazo de la Roche)

e.g. Catherine's blood ran cold with the horrid suggestions which naturally sprang from these words. (J. Austen)

e.g. You've come home such a beautiful lady. (Taylor)

e.g. I sat down hungry, I was hungry while I ate, and I got up from the table hungry. (Saroyan)

e.g. She had set her feet upon that road a spoiled, selfish and untried girl, full of youth, warm of emotion, easily bewildered by life. (Dreiser)

^ See: ,
double passive

двойной пассив

the construction whereby a passive infinitive directly follows a passive verb

Double passives are more acceptable when used in a reporting context. It is better to avoid the passive form of the verb as much as possible as it tends to convey a weak approach by the individual writing it.

e.g. The building is scheduled to be demolished next week.

e.g. T
he contract is proposed to be withdrawn.

e.g. Their budget was expected to be reduced.

e.g. The mountain was attempted to be climbed.

e.g. A cheerful atmosphere was endeavoured to be created.

e.g. The piece was originally intended to be played on the harpsichord.

e.g. This topic was claimed to have been studied to death.

e.g. Three people are reported to have been drowned.

e.g. The building was expected to have been completed by then.

e.g. The manufacture of your goods is hoped to be resumed shortly.



The American Heritage Book of English Usage. A Practical and Authoritative Guide to Contemporary English. 1996.


The Columbia Guide to Standard American English by Kenneth G. Wilson.


The Oxford Guide to English Usage.



See: , ,
double possessive

double genitive

двойной генитив

the ’s construction after the of-construction

e.g. a friend of my father’s (= one of my father’s friends)

e.g. a play of Shakespeare’s (= one of Shakespeare’s plays)

This can happen because we usually put only one determiner in front of a noun.

e.g. this son of mine, a friend of yours, a cousin of hers,

e.g. Isn’t Frank Byers a friend of yours?

e.g. He’s no friend of mine. (= I don’t know him.) or (= He’s my enemy.)

The use of demonstratives often suggests criticism:

e.g. That silly uncle of yours has told me the same joke five times.

Source: Longman English Grammar by L.G.Alexander. L., 1988. P. 54

^ See:
double negative

двойное отрицание

two negative words in a sentence

- can be used to express an affirmative, but this is rare or sometimes heard in joking;

e.g. Nobody did nothing. (=Everybody did something)

- is acceptable when there is co-ordination;

e.g. I’ve never had and never wanted a television set.

- is also possible in different clauses:

e.g. I can never get in touch with Thomas, as he has no telephone.

[m3]Note: the not in the if-clause does not make a true negative:

e.g. I wouldn’t be surprised if he didn’t try to blackmail you. (i.e. if he tried to blackmail you.)

Source: Longman English Grammar by L.G.Alexander. L., 1988. P. 254, 277


- is possible in standard English, but then both words normally have their full

e.g. Compare:

e.g. Say nothing. (=Be silent.)

e.g. Don’t just say nothing. Tell us what the problem is. (=Don’t be silent...)

- is sometimes used instead of simple positive structures for special stylistic effects

- is rather literary

- can ^ Seem unnatural or old-fashioned in spoken English

e.g. Not a day passes when I don’t regret not having studied music in my youth. (More natural: Every day I regret not having studied music when I was younger. OR: I wish I had studied music when I was younger.)

Source: Practical English Usage by Michael Swan. L., 1996. P. 357

e.g. Nobody never went and hinted no such thing, said Peggotty; I can’t do nothing without my staff. (Hardy)

^ See: ,
continuous infinitive


e.g. I can recollect yet how I loved him; and can dimly imagine I could still [u]be loving[/u] him if - No, no! (E.Bronte)

gives more prominence to the idea of the continuity of her love, and this is obviously much stronger than the mere statement that love might still be there now. The stylistic difference is thus unquestionable, but there would Seem to be also a grammatical difference. The of the continuous aspect is well brought out here, though the lexical meaning of the verb love would Seem to go against it.

Source: Ильиш Б.О. Строй современного английского языка. 2-е изд. Л., 1971. – С. 130

^ See:
continuous participle

is occasionally found, but this use appears to be obsolete:

e.g. The younger Miss Thorpes [u]being[/u] also [u]dancing[/u], Catherine was left to the mercy of Mrs Thorpe and Mrs Allen, between whom she now remained. (J.Austin)

e.g. Catherine had no leisure for speech, [u]being[/u] at once [u]blushing[/u], [u]tying[/u] her gown, and [u]forming[/u] wise resolutions with the most violent dispatch. (J.Austin)

The use of the continuous participles ^ Seems to be a means of giving prominence to the fact that the actions indicated were actually happening at that very moment.

Source:Ильиш Б.О. Строй современного английского языка. 2-е изд. Л., 1971. – С. 131

continuous infinitive passive

can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring

Source: Blokh M.Y. A Course of Theoretical English Grammar. 4th ed. M., 2003. p. 118

e.g. Despite initial concerns, the MyParty virus Seems to be being contained with only a few thousand reports so far. (BBC)

e.g. Little has been heard of Saddam Hussein since he was captured at the end of last year but he is believed to be being held at an undisclosed location in Iraq. (BBC)

perfect continuous infinitive passive

can only be used occasionally, with a strong stylistic colouring

Source: Blokh M.Y. A Course of Theoretical English Grammar. 4th ed. M., 2003. p. 118

e.g. Around a quarter (23.0%) \[of separate houses in Queensland\] were being rented. Flats and townhouses were far more likely to have been being rented (71.5% and 63.0% respectively) than houses. (Queensland Govt)


e.g. Now we know from the documents that we have in Exhibit 37-A, that \[ventilation\] surveys Seem to have been being done about once a month up until … February.


perfect continuous passive

To imagine this ungainly verbal predicate in a sentence, consider:

e.g. That song has been being sung for hours, and I’m sick of it.

which implies either the singing of one extremely long song or repetitious performances of the same song.

^ Source: Gerald. P. Delahunty, James J. Garvey. Language, grammar and Communication. A Course for Teachers of English. Colorado, 1994. p. 194


Ирина Владимировна Арнольд(?)
Стилистика английского языка

  1. Структурно-морфологические и синтаксические особенности газетного стиля.

Цель газетного стиля – проинформировать читателя о событиях дня, выработать у читателя соответствующее отношение к этим событиям. Стиль определяется лингвистами как единое целое, характерные черты типичны для всех газетных жанров и всех видов газет.В английских газетах никогда не публикуются целиком официальные документы, статьи на темы медицины, техники и т. п. приводятся в переработанном журналистами виде. Оценка –> интеллектуальная и эмоциональная. В quality papers преобладает интеллектуальная оценка.

Собственные имена: топонимы, антропонимы, названия учреждений и организаций; большой процент числительных, обилие дат. Обилие интернациональных слов и склонность к инновациям, большой процент абстрактных слов. Обилие не столько эмоциональной, сколько оценочной и экспрессивной лексики.

Своеобразие в использовании времен и залогов, частое использование неличных форм, обилие сложных атрибутивных образований, особенности в порядке слов (“five-w-and-h-pattern rule” –> who-what-why-how-where-when). Сложноподчиненные предложения.

  1. Компрессия информации в газетных текстах. Способы реализации языковой краткости. Стереотипные словосочетания.

Краткость диктует речевую экономию языковых средств за счет коммуникативно менее важных фрагментов сообщения. Частично выражается имплицитно. Исторически характерен переход от более развернутых форм к более кратким. Причины:

  1. Формирование жанра кратких газетных объявлений

  2. Начавшаяся в XIX веке интенсивная демократизация языка, которая привела к использованию кратких устно-разговорных форм.

  3. Создание во II половине XIX века информационных телеграфных агентств, для которых краткость – техническая необходимость.

Для всех газетных жанров характерны общие формы реализации краткости: компрессия информации и передача некоторой части сообщений имплицитно.

Способы компрессии информации: опущение глагола, употребление буквенной аббревиатуры.

В газете присутствуют клишированные конструкции, конструкции с эллипсисом и др. Клише различаются по тематическим группам и по лингвистической сущности.

  1. Группа научных инноваций –> lazerprinter

  2. Проблемы экологии –> global warming

  3. Проблемы экономики –>

  4. Внутренняя политика –> discrimination, political correctness

  5. Внешняя политика –>

Клише обслуживают ситуации, регулярно повторяющиеся в рамках газетного стиля. Большая часть клишированных конструкций – слой общелитературной нейтральной лексики. Многие клише почерпнуты из профессиональных жаргонов (полит. hard-liner консерватор), многие – из общего сленга (think-tank мозг). В языке прессы встречается лексика из профессионализмов, использованных в качестве «престижных эквивалентов» обычных лексических единиц. Цель – облегчить восприятие информации читателем, достичь определенного коммуникативного воздействия на читателя. Политические термины выражают точно определенные политические концепции, такие как republic, monarchy, national servanty. К терминам примыкают так называемые словарные единицы. Отмечена тенденция к закреплению за газетами соответствующих социально-политических ориентаций (western democracy – положительная коннотация, western propoganda – отрицательная коннотация).

  1. Стилистические функции полуотмеченных структур.

Полуотмеченными называются структуры, отклоняющиеся от существующих правил грамматики и требующие специальной интерпретации. Н. Хомский–> градация грамматичности: отмеченные (по правилам грамматики)–полуотмеченныенеотмеченные (не существуют). В полуотмеченных структурах либо наблюдается несовместимость лексического значения и грамматической формы, либо лексическая несовместимость. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. В соответствии с грамматическими правилами, но нарушены правила лексической сочетаемости. Название стихотворения Делла Хаймса. Нарушение сочетаемости – значимое. Оксюморон – стилистическая фигура, в которой сочетание контрастных по значению слов создает новое понятие или раскрывает противоречивость описываемого. Полуотмеченные структуры не бессмысленны, а характеризуются низкой предсказуемостью.

  1. Нелитературная разговорная лексика и фразеология.

Нелитературная лексика и фразеология подразделяется на группы:

  1. Вульгаризмы

  2. Профессионализмы (арго, жаргон)

  3. Диалектизмы

  4. Сленг

Вульгаризмы – определенная группа слов и фразеологизмов, для которых характерны грубости, граничащие с непристойностью.

  1. Слова с уничижающим значением, презрительные национальные и др. клички. spate, scits, psycho.

  2. Бранные слова (bloody, damn, bitch). Их назначение – выражение сильных эмоций, главным образом гнева.

Профессионализмы – слова, сочетания и обороты, использующиеся в специальной разговорной сфере, которая имеет хождение в небольших социальных (или связанных одной профессией) группах и которая понятна только этой группе. We can what we can; military slang a fish – торпеда, an egg – бомба.

Диалектизмы – слова, оставшиеся за пределами литературного языка. Уэссекский диалект: ye–>you, I be… London cockny – диалект жителей East End. Определяется фонетическими вариантами (например, не произносится ). Rhyming Slang – система выражения мысли, при которой вместо слова или словосочетания используется совсем другое по смыслу, но рифмующееся. Home – gate of Rome, wife – joy of my life.

Сленг – маркированный слой языка, который используется в разговорной речи с ярко выраженной эмоционально-экспрессивной оценочной окраской и который может легко переходить в слой общеупотребительной лексики, но не переходить в книжный.

  1. Заимствования из других языков, диалектов. Dotty – шотл. Foolish.

  2. Смещение значений (расширение или сужение). A bogger – внушающий ужас.

  3. Аббревиатуры. Alcy – alcocholic, BLT – lettuce & tomato sandwich.

Сленг – очень динамичный слой языка.

  1. Лексико-семантические характеристики рекламного текста. Особенности употребления цветообозначений.

Язык рекламы – особый язык. Все задействованные в нем стилистические средства отличаются по форме, которую они принимают. Очень часто в рекламных текстах встречаются аллюзии, гиперболы, повторы. Фразеологические единицы в рекламных текстах обычно встречаются в измененном виде: в усеченном виде, в них могут быть вставлены другие слова, переосмыслено значение многозначных слов. Переориентирование оценки с отрицательной на положительную. Отрицательная оценка редко встречается в рекламных текстах –> The most sinful brownies in Britain. You are in for extraordinary pleasure. Литота редко встречается.

^ Цветообозначения в рекламных текстах. Цвет является очень важным моментом в рекламных текстах. Разные ученые дают цветам разные значения. Например, красный – теплота, желтый – радость, зеленый – спокойствие, белый – уют и т. п. Отсюда огромное количество цветообозначающих прилагательных в текстах рекламы. Больше всего оттенков зеленого – 42 оттенка. Наименьшее количество оттенков белого, у черного – ни одного. Цвета связываются с тем, что легко запоминается и вызывает приятные ассоциации. С животными –> crocodile green, camel-coloured whool, с фруктами –> peach-toned lipstick, с едой –> honey-toned. Часто встречается компонент sun/sunny.

  1. Формула AIDA. Прагматический характер рекламных текстов.

  2. Стилистические функции коннотаций. Культурная коннотация.
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